Immune System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Breast lumps are one of the most common problems encountered in clinical practice. It is often stated that all breast lumps should be treated as malignant until proven otherwise. This is the correct attitude - but the wrong approach.\n\nThe key to arriving at a proper diagnosis is eliciting the proper clinical, radiological and histocytological findings - the so called \u0022triple assessment\u0022.\n\nClinical assessment shows the lump to be firm, with an irregular surface. There are overlying skin changes and the nipple is deviated towards the lump. This constellation of findings is highly suspicious of a malignancy.\n\nHowever, there is a confounding factor - the history of trauma to the affected region. Traumatic fat necrosis is well known to mimic the"}]}

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