Musculoskeletal System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This young woman has presented with a fracture of the left femur, following only minor trauma. Subsequently, x-rays of the affected limb showed a puzzling finding: increased bone density (i.e. osteosclerosis).\n\nThe key causes of osteosclerosis can be recalled via the \u00273 M\u0027s PROOF\u0027 mnemonic:\n\nM: malignancy (metastases, lymphoma, and leukemia)\nM: myelofibrosis\nM: mastocytosis\nS: sickle cell disease\nP: Paget\u2019s disease and pycnodysostosis\nR: renal osteodystrophy\nO: osteopetrosis\nO: other (sclerotic dysplasias, hyperthyroidism, and hypoparathyroidism)\nF: skeletal fluorosis\n\nAn analysis of her history provides some clues. First of all, her mother has a history of fractures. This may imply a genetic etiology, i.e. osteopetrosis, pycnodysostosis,"}]}

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