Endocrine System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This premenopausal lady has presented with bilateral hip fractures following trivial trauma. This is extremely unusual and should raise suspicion of an underlying pathology.\n\nX-rays of the lower limbs confirm the presence of bilateral subtrochanteric fractures and additionally reveal the presence of marked osteopenia, indicating a loss in bone density.\n\nNote also the history of nocturia and constipation. In this patient, these symptoms should raise the suspicion of hypercalcemia.\n\nThis is confirmed by the serum electrolytes, which additionally reveal the presence of hypophosphatemia.\n\nRelatively few pathologies cause both osteopenia and hypercalcemia - most importantly hyperparathyroidism and malignancies.\n\nHyperparathyroidism gives rise to"}]}

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