Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Our patient is a 48-year-old man with chronic fatigue, sluggishness, and poor concentration, in a background of intermittent back pain for several years. He has also experienced recurrent urinary symptoms since childhood, without proper evaluation.\n\nOn examination, he is pale and hypertensive; a complete blood count and blood film also reveal mild normocytic normochromic anemia.\n\nNote that the aforementioned history is suspicious of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs); in this context, the presence of anemia and hypertension are ominous, potentially suggesting progression to chronic pyelonephritis (CPN) or chronic kidney disease (CKD).\n\nThus, it is rational to commence his initial evaluation with a urinalysis, renal function tests, an"}]}

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