Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This 7-year-old boy has presented following what appears to be an episode of gross hematuria, in the background of a probable upper respiratory tract infection. His urinalysis precludes any doubts in this respect, by showing microhematuria, microalbuminuria, erythrocyte casts, and dysmorphic cells.\n \nThe presence of erythrocyte casts and dysmorphic cells points towards glomerular disease. While this label encompasses a vast list of conditions, these can be categorized as primary glomerulonephritides, secondary glomerulonephritides, or familial conditions, thus aiding the diagnostic reasoning.\n \nHis history provides an important clue. Note the history of chronic kidney disease at a young age in a maternal uncle. This favors a familial etiolo"}]}

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