More Bleeding

Female Reproductive System & Breast


{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This lady has presented with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) in the absence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This is abnormal and mandates further evaluation.\n\nWhile the majority of such cases are due to innocuous causes such as endometrial atrophy or atrophic vaginitis, the possibility of endometrial carcinoma must be considered in all patients. This is doubly important here, given her advanced age and nulliparity, both of which are risk factors for the condition.\n\nOther differential diagnoses include endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial or cervical polyps, cervical cancer, decubitus ulcers of the cervix, cervicitis, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.\n\nExamination shows a normal appearing vagina and cervix, excluding decubitus ulce"}]}

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