Immune System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This patient has presented with unilateral focal neurological signs and altered mentation in a background of fever for one week; this clinical presentation is strongly suggestive of a focal encephalitis.\n\nThe differential diagnosis of focal encephalitis in HIV-positive individuals (particularly if a low CD4 cell count is present) is considerably different from that in immunocompetent individuals.\n\nWhile Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) remains an important consideration (as it is both very common, and also the only treatable viral encephalitis), opportunistic pathogens also need to be considered.\n\nIn this respect, Cerebral Toxoplasmosis is the commonest cause of focal neurological signs in this group of patients; other important agents include Cy"}]}

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