Hidden 2

Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This young man has presented with right-sided flank pain for three days, in the absence of other symptoms.\n\nThe potential etiologies are wide and include disease of the abdominal organs (such as urolithiasis, acute pyelonephritis, gallstone disease, renal infarction, abdominal aortic dissection and abdominal malignancies), as well as extra-abdominal disease (e.g. myocardial infarction, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism and musculoskeletal pain).\n\nThe general examination shows him to be ill looking and febrile, with a mildly elevated blood pressure. However, the abdominal examination throws up a surprise: bilateral ballotable kidneys, an unusual and uncommon sign.\n\nThe possibility of Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) immediately rears its head, in"}]}

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