More Dyspnea

Cardiovascular System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Dyspnea which develops over a few hours has a relatively small differential diagnosis. This includes cardiac causes such as acute coronary syndromes, acute heart failure and cardiac tamponade, as well as pulmonary causes such as acute exacerbations of asthma or chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) or pneumonia.\n\nHer examination reveals bibasal fine crackles, an elevated jugular venous pressure and cardiomegaly - the cardinal symptoms of heart failure. This establishes the cause of the dyspnea, but raises a new question - what caused the heart failure ?\n\nGiven her significantly elevated blood pressure and background of uncontrolled hypertension, a hypertensive emergency causing end organ damage is a possibility. The other likely cause "}]}

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