Out Of Comfort 2

Cardiovascular System


{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"This middle aged gentleman has presented with an ominous collection of symptoms: worsening dyspnea and chest discomfort, tachycardia, hypotension, an elevated jugular venous pressure (JVP), pulsus paradoxus, and muffled heart sounds.\n\nThe above collection of signs and symptoms is almost pathognomonic of cardiac tamponade; this is supported by the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of low-voltage QRS complexes and electrical alternans.\n\nUrgent bedside echocardiography is an essential next step; this confirms the presence of a pericardial effusion, and also reveals the presence of right atrial collapse during a significant part of the cardiac cycle, end-diastolic right ventricular collapse, and vena caval plethora; these signs indicate cardi"}]}

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