Bottleneck

Cardiovascular System


{"ops":[{"insert":"Diagnosis and reasoning"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"The clinical findings in this patient are suggestive of aortic stenosis (AS). This is confirmed by the echocardiogram which shows moderate stenosis of the aortic valve, an increased transvalvular pressure gradient and left ventricular hypertrophy.\n\nAS is defined to be symptomatic if angina, syncope or dyspnea are present, as these symptoms indicate severe stenosis with an ominous prognosis. Thus, although this patient complains of a minimal reduction in exercise tolerance, he is not termed to have symptomatic AS.\n\nHis ECG shows no evidence of arrhythmias, while the chest X-ray shows normal lung fields, making heart failure or pulmonary hypertension unlikely.\n\nIn general, moderate AS does not require aortic valve replacement (AVR). However, "}]}

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