Tetralogy of Fallot

The blues

Step 1: View clinicals

A 20 year old refugee presents with recurrent episodes of exertional dyspnea, palpitations and easy fatiguability since childhood. He had not undergone evaluation in his native country. His family history is unremarkable, and he is not on any medications.


Step 2: Order all relevant investigations

Full blood count

WBC/DC: 7,000/mm3 Hb: 18.2 g/dl Hct (PCV): 60% Platelets: 300,000/mm3

Chest X-Ray

The x-ray reveals oligemic lung fields and a boot-shaped heart.

ECG

The ECG shows P-pulmonale, right axis deviation, and a right bundle branch block.

Echocardiography

The findings include a 2 cm membranous VSD with a right to left shunt; a 45% aortic override with a normal aortic diameter; right ventricular hypertrophy, right atrial dilatation and infundibular stenosis; a small left ventricle; and an ejection fraction of 56%.


Step 3: Select appropriate management

Oxygen
Bronchodilators
Pulmonary valve repair
Surgical correction


Score: ★★☆