Heart Failure III

Cardiovascular System

{"ops":[{"insert":"A 65-year-old man comes to the physician with a 6-month history of shortness of breath, initially with exertion, but now also at night and when lying down. Examination shows jugular venous distention. Crackles are heard at both lung bases. There is 2+ pitting edema of the lower legs and ankles. Echocardiography shows a left ventricular ejection fraction of 65%. The left ventricular cavity is small with concentric hypertrophy. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her heart failure?"},{"insert":"\n"}]}






Aortic stenosis


Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


Dilated cardiomyopathy


Cor pulmonale


{"ops":[{"insert":"GALDERISI M. Diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Cardiovasc Ultrasound [online] 2005 Apr 4:9 [viewed 26 May 2019] Available from: http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/15807887"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"list":"ordered"}},{"insert":"KASPER EDWARD K., AGEMA WILLEM R.P., HUTCHINS GROVER M., DECKERS JAAP W., HARE JOSHUA M., BAUGHMAN KENNETH L.. The causes of dilated cardiomyopathy: A clinicopathologic review of 673 consecutive patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology [online] 1994 March, 23(3):586-590 [viewed 26 May 2019] Available from: doi:10.1016\/0735-1097(94)90740-4"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"list":"ordered"}}]}

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