Heart Failure I

Cardiovascular System

{"ops":[{"insert":"A 67-year-old white woman presents with a 6-month history of shortness of breath, initially with exertion, but now also at night and when lying down. She has no history of serious illness. Examination shows jugular venous distention. Crackles are heard at both lung bases. There is 2+ pitting edema of the lower legs and ankles. Echocardiography shows a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%. Which of the following is the most appropriate drug to reduce mortality from her condition?"},{"insert":"\n"}]}




ACE inhibitors








Isosorbide dinitrate


{"ops":[{"insert":"COLE RT, KALOGEROPOULOS AP, GEORGIOPOULOU VV, GHEORGHIADE M, QUYYUMI A, YANCY C, BUTLER J. Hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate in heart failure: historical perspective, mechanisms, and future directions. Circulation [online] 2011 May 31, 123(21):2414-22 [viewed 26 May 2019] Available from: http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/21632515"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"list":"ordered"}},{"insert":"BURNETT H, EARLEY A, VOORS AA, SENNI M, MCMURRAY JJ, DESCHASEAUX C, COPE S. Thirty Years of Evidence on the Efficacy of Drug Treatments for Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Network Meta-Analysis. Circ Heart Fail [online] 2017 Jan [viewed 26 May 2019] Available from: http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/28087688"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"list":"ordered"}},{"insert":"ORSBORNE C, CHAGGAR PS, SHAW SM, WILLIAMS SG. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in heart failure for the non-specialist: the past, the present and the future. Postgrad Med J [online] 2017 Jan, 93(1095):29-37 [viewed 26 May 2019] Available from: http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/27671772"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"list":"ordered"}}]}

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