Multiple myeloma

Blood & Lymphoreticular System


Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Multiple myeloma (MM) consists of a neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, or rarely, IgE or IgD) or light chain protein (kappa or lambda).\n\nMM accounts for 1% of all cancers and ~10% of all hematologic malignancies. It is twice more common in blacks than whites, with a slight male predominance. Median survival is 5 to 7 years.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Advanced age\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The median age of presentation is 70 years of age; 15% of patients are less than 65 years old. Persons of African descent tend to present at a younger age.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Asymptomatic\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Multiple myeloma is asymptomatic initially. In such individuals, it is usually identified incidentally, e.g. via laboratory studies showing hypercalcemia, anemia, or proteinuria.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bone pain\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bone disease is present in 80-90% of patients. Pain is due to bony infiltration and pathologic fractures.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hyperviscosity syndrome\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hyperviscosity syndrome range from mild headache, dizziness or dyspnea, to severe manifestations such as altered mentation, transient ischemic attacks, retinal hemorrhages, and deep venous thrombosis.\n\nHyperviscosity syndrome occurs due to high concentrations of serum monoclonal proteins.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hypercalcemia\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Hypercalcemia can present with numerous symptoms, including:\n\n\u25cb Neurologic symptoms (e.g. fatigue and altered mental status);\n\u25cb Gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and constipation); and,\n\u25cb Renal symptoms (e.g. polyuria due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus)\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Introduction\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Multiple myeloma (MM) consists of a neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, or rarely, IgE or IgD) or light chain protein (kappa or lambda).\n\nMM accounts for 1% of all cancers and ~10% of all hematologic malignancies. It is twice more common in blacks than whites, with a slight male predominance. Median survival is 5 to 7 years.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Advanced age\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"The median age of presentation is 70 years of age; 15% of patients are less than 65 years old. Persons of African descent tend to present at a younger age.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Asymptomatic\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Multiple myeloma is asymptomatic initially. In such individuals, it is usually identified incidentally, e.g. via laboratory studies showing hypercalcemia, anemia, or proteinuria.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bone pain\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Bone disease is present in 80-90% of patients. Pain is due to bony infiltration and pathologic fractures.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hyperviscosity syndrome\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hyperviscosity syndrome range from mild headache, dizziness or dyspnea, to severe manifestations such as altered mentation, transient ischemic attacks, retinal hemorrhages, and deep venous thrombosis.\n\nHyperviscosity syndrome occurs due to high concentrations of serum monoclonal proteins.\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Features of hypercalcemia\n"}]}
{"ops":[{"insert":"Hypercalcemia can present with numerous symptoms, including:\n\n\u25cb Neurologic symptoms (e.g. fatigue and altered mental status);\n\u25cb Gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and constipation); and,\n\u25cb Renal symptoms (e.g. polyuria due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus)\n"}]}

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