Plummer-Vinson syndrome / Kelly-Paterson syndrome - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Upper GI

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) Occurs due to long term iron deficiency anemia leading to formation of esophageal webs. , . These esophageal webs are thin mucosal folds (covered with squamous epithelium) protruding into the lumen of proximal esophagus. Dysphagia resulted due to esophageal webs is usually painless and intermittent or progressive. . Patients usually complain dysphagia to solid but with the time it can progress into dysphagia for liquids as well. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia)
Occurs due to long term iron deficiency anemia leading to formation of esophageal webs. , . These esophageal webs are thin mucosal folds (covered with squamous epithelium) protruding into the lumen of proximal esophagus. Dysphagia resulted due to esophageal webs is usually painless and intermittent or progressive. . Patients usually complain dysphagia to solid but with the time it can progress into dysphagia for liquids as well.
Weight loss Dysphagia occurs in Plummer Vinson syndrome (PVS) is painless thus leading to progressive weight loss. As the progressive dysphagia is painless patient tolerate it for long before presenting to the clinician causing malnourishment and weight loss. Weight loss
Dysphagia occurs in Plummer Vinson syndrome (PVS) is painless thus leading to progressive weight loss. As the progressive dysphagia is painless patient tolerate it for long before presenting to the clinician causing malnourishment and weight loss.
Weakness Symptom that occurs secondary to iron deficiency anemia.,. Weakness
Symptom that occurs secondary to iron deficiency anemia.,.
Fatigue Also occurs due to iron deficiency anemia.,. Fatigue
Also occurs due to iron deficiency anemia.,.
Pallor Common secondary manifestation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). . Patients with mild IDA are most likely asymptomatic.Symptoms appear when the anemia becomes more severe.. Pallor
Common secondary manifestation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). . Patients with mild IDA are most likely asymptomatic.Symptoms appear when the anemia becomes more severe..
Exertional dyspnea Non specific manifestation of severe anemia.. Exertional dyspnea
Non specific manifestation of severe anemia..

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Esophageal webs Iron deficiency causes reduction of iron dependent oxidative enzymes. It leads to degeneration of muscles of pharynx, leading to mucosal atrophy and development of webs. The high cellular turnover rate in the epithelium of the upper digestive tract makes it vulnerable to iron deficiency due to deficiency of the iron dependent enzymes. And also iron deficiency decreases the contraction amplitude of the esophageal muscles, leading to motility impairment.The webs limited to proximal and middle part of the esophagus can explained,because transient time in upper esophagus slower in affected individuals than the normal individuals.. Esophageal webs
Iron deficiency causes reduction of iron dependent oxidative enzymes. It leads to degeneration of muscles of pharynx, leading to mucosal atrophy and development of webs. The high cellular turnover rate in the epithelium of the upper digestive tract makes it vulnerable to iron deficiency due to deficiency of the iron dependent enzymes. And also iron deficiency decreases the contraction amplitude of the esophageal muscles, leading to motility impairment.The webs limited to proximal and middle part of the esophagus can explained,because transient time in upper esophagus slower in affected individuals than the normal individuals..
Glossitis Manifestation of IDA.. Iron deficiency causing atrophy of upper GI mucosa is the reason for glossitis.. Glossitis
Manifestation of IDA.. Iron deficiency causing atrophy of upper GI mucosa is the reason for glossitis..
Angular cheilitis Occurs due to IDA.. Cracks or fissure at the corners of the mouth along
with painful tongue can be seen..
Angular cheilitis
Occurs due to IDA.. Cracks or fissure at the corners of the mouth along
with painful tongue can be seen..
Smooth tongue Tissue iron plays an important role in the proliferation of epithelial cells.Smooth tongue is a physical sign of tissue iron deficiency.. Smooth tongue
Tissue iron plays an important role in the proliferation of epithelial cells.Smooth tongue is a physical sign of tissue iron deficiency..
Koilonychia Spoon-shaped fingernails.Also a secondary manifestation of anemia.. Those patients have nails that are brittle which break easily.. Koilonychia
Spoon-shaped fingernails.Also a secondary manifestation of anemia.. Those patients have nails that are brittle which break easily..
Tachycardia Resulting from anemia.Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is defined by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia and esophageal webs.So the features of iron deficiency anemia commonly seen in patients with PVS.. Tachycardia
Resulting from anemia.Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is defined by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia and esophageal webs.So the features of iron deficiency anemia commonly seen in patients with PVS..

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Full blood count/Complete blood count Reveal iron deficiency anemia with decreased values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. ,. Full blood count/Complete blood count
Reveal iron deficiency anemia with decreased values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. ,.
Serum iron studies Reveal iron deficiency anemia with decrease level of iron, ferritin and and increased total iron binding capacity.,. Serum iron studies
Reveal iron deficiency anemia with decrease level of iron, ferritin and and increased total iron binding capacity.,.
Barium swallow Esophageal webs can be detected by barium swallow X-ray. Barium-swallow studies and fluoroscopic evaluation suggest the diagnosis and also degree of stenosis.,. Barium swallow
Esophageal webs can be detected by barium swallow X-ray. Barium-swallow studies and fluoroscopic evaluation suggest the diagnosis and also degree of stenosis.,.
Videofluoroscopy The best way for demonstration of esophageal webs than the barium swallow. Webs are also detectable by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Those webs appear smooth, thin, and gray with eccentric or central lumen.These esophageal webs typically occur in the proximal part of the esophagus. They may be missed or accidentally ruptured unless the endoscope is introduced under direct visualization. Videofluoroscopy
The best way for demonstration of esophageal webs than the barium swallow. Webs are also detectable by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Those webs appear smooth, thin, and gray with eccentric or central lumen.These esophageal webs typically occur in the proximal part of the esophagus. They may be missed or accidentally ruptured unless the endoscope is introduced under direct visualization.

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Surveillance upper gastrointestinal endoscopy Recommended every year, because PVS is associated with an increase risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and esophagus. So the patient should be followed up closely. . Surveillance upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
Recommended every year, because PVS is associated with an increase risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and esophagus. So the patient should be followed up closely. .

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Iron replacement Iron supplementation alone can resolve dysphagia in many patients with PVS.. Usually both anemia and dysphagia effectively treated with iron therapy.Iron therapy is recommended even if the hemoglobin percentage is normal in the presence of esophageal web formation. . And the others,iron replacement is recommended at least until normalization of the hematocrit and ferritin levels.. Iron replacement
Iron supplementation alone can resolve dysphagia in many patients with PVS.. Usually both anemia and dysphagia effectively treated with iron therapy.Iron therapy is recommended even if the hemoglobin percentage is normal in the presence of esophageal web formation. . And the others,iron replacement is recommended at least until normalization of the hematocrit and ferritin levels..

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Endoscopic dilatation In case of significant obstruction of the esophageal lumen by esophageal web and persistent dysphagia despite iron supplementation have to go for an alternative procedure like rupture and dilation of the web. After endoscopic placement of a guidewire, dilators with a diameter of up to 17 mm can be used.Usually only one dilation is enough to relieve dysphagia. But in some cases several attempts should be taken. Endoscopic dilatation
In case of significant obstruction of the esophageal lumen by esophageal web and persistent dysphagia despite iron supplementation have to go for an alternative procedure like rupture and dilation of the web. After endoscopic placement of a guidewire, dilators with a diameter of up to 17 mm can be used.Usually only one dilation is enough to relieve dysphagia. But in some cases several attempts should be taken.
Argon plasma coagulation therapy To treat esophageal webs. However it has been tried with reasonable success.The prognosis is mostly good at short-term followups.. Argon plasma coagulation therapy
To treat esophageal webs. However it has been tried with reasonable success.The prognosis is mostly good at short-term followups..

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