HIV in Pregnancy

Obstetrics

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Fever, malaise Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as fever, malaise, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection. Fever, malaise
Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as fever, malaise, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection.
Rash Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as flu like illness with a rash similar to viral exanthum, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection. Rash
Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as flu like illness with a rash similar to viral exanthum, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection.
Generalized lymph node enlargement This is a common sign and generalized widespread lymph node enlargement is seen. Generalized lymph node enlargement
This is a common sign and generalized widespread lymph node enlargement is seen.
Oral lesions Due to immunosuppression, opportunistic infections such as candidiasis can occur as well as patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore oral Herpes lesions can also present. Oral lesions
Due to immunosuppression, opportunistic infections such as candidiasis can occur as well as patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore oral Herpes lesions can also present.
Genital ulcers, itching, discharge patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore Herpes, Syphilis lesions can also present. Genital ulcers, itching, discharge
patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore Herpes, Syphilis lesions can also present.
Prolonged and recurrent cough, diarrhea in the mother Their immune system is suppressed therefore recurrent unusual bacterial and viral infections occur. They are prolonged in course too. Also there can be reactivation of infections such as Tuberculosis. Prolonged and recurrent cough, diarrhea in the mother
Their immune system is suppressed therefore recurrent unusual bacterial and viral infections occur. They are prolonged in course too. Also there can be reactivation of infections such as Tuberculosis.
Weight loss They experience chronic diarrhea which causes weight loss Weight loss
They experience chronic diarrhea which causes weight loss
Rash, fever, oral lesions, eye lesions in the baby Immune system of the babies is also suppressed therefore recurrent unusual bacterial and viral infections occur. They are prolonged in course too. Oral thrush is due to candidiasis commonly and eye lesions suggest cytomegalo virus retinitis Rash, fever, oral lesions, eye lesions in the baby
Immune system of the babies is also suppressed therefore recurrent unusual bacterial and viral infections occur. They are prolonged in course too. Oral thrush is due to candidiasis commonly and eye lesions suggest cytomegalo virus retinitis
Development delay, Failure to thrive in children HIV infected children are likely to have impairment in growth, with development delay and especially language impairment. Development delay, Failure to thrive in children
HIV infected children are likely to have impairment in growth, with development delay and especially language impairment.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Febrile Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as fever, malaise, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection. Febrile
Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as fever, malaise, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection.
Rash Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as flu like illness with a rash similar to viral exanthum, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection. Rash
Acute seroconversion of the virus may manifests as flu like illness with a rash similar to viral exanthum, which is mistaken for a simple viral infection.
Generalized lymph node enlargement This is a common sign and generalized widespread lymph node enlargement is see. Epitrochlear node enlargement is characteristic. Generalized lymph node enlargement
This is a common sign and generalized widespread lymph node enlargement is see. Epitrochlear node enlargement is characteristic.
Oral lesions Due to immunosuppression, opportunistic infections such as candidiasis can occur as well as patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore oral Herpes lesions can also present. Oral lesions
Due to immunosuppression, opportunistic infections such as candidiasis can occur as well as patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore oral Herpes lesions can also present.
Cachexic Rapid weight loss is seen therefore patients appear cachexic. Cachexic
Rapid weight loss is seen therefore patients appear cachexic.
Dullness on percussion, Crepitations, reduced breath sounds on auscultation of the respiratory system Recurrent opportunistic infections of the respiratory system is common, particularly Tuberculosis. Therefore respiratory signs can occur. Pneumonic signs and signs of pleural effusion are likely. Dullness on percussion, Crepitations, reduced breath sounds on auscultation of the respiratory system
Recurrent opportunistic infections of the respiratory system is common, particularly Tuberculosis. Therefore respiratory signs can occur. Pneumonic signs and signs of pleural effusion are likely.
Genital ulcers, discharge. patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore Herpes, Syphilis lesions can also present. Genital ulcers, discharge.
patients infected with HIV are likely to have other STDs. Therefore Herpes, Syphilis lesions can also present.
Needle marks HIV is commonly seen in patients with IV drug abuse, therefore needle marks in the skin can be seen Needle marks
HIV is commonly seen in patients with IV drug abuse, therefore needle marks in the skin can be seen
No signs in the mother Sometimes patient can appear apparently healthy with no signs on examination at all No signs in the mother
Sometimes patient can appear apparently healthy with no signs on examination at all
Unusual rashes in the neonate Unusual rashes such as erythematous, papular rash due to HIV dermatitis, Varicella shingles rash, candidal dermatitis can be seen. Rarely HIV-induced thrombocytopenia can cause petechial rash as well. Unusual rashes in the neonate
Unusual rashes such as erythematous, papular rash due to HIV dermatitis, Varicella shingles rash, candidal dermatitis can be seen. Rarely HIV-induced thrombocytopenia can cause petechial rash as well.
Oral lesions in the neonate Large tonsils, oral aphthous ulcers, oral/pharyngeal plaques due to candidiasis or leukoplakia can be present. Sometimes parotid enlargement can occur Oral lesions in the neonate
Large tonsils, oral aphthous ulcers, oral/pharyngeal plaques due to candidiasis or leukoplakia can be present. Sometimes parotid enlargement can occur
Eye lesions in the neonate Due to Cytomegalovirus retinitis. Eye lesions in the neonate
Due to Cytomegalovirus retinitis.
Peripheral oedema in the neonate Due to hypoalbuminaemia due to HIV induced nephropathy or malnutrition due to gastrointestinal dysfunction. Peripheral oedema in the neonate
Due to hypoalbuminaemia due to HIV induced nephropathy or malnutrition due to gastrointestinal dysfunction.
Cardiomegaly, tachypnoea, tachycardia, scalp sweating suggestive of cardiac failure These signs of congestive cardiac failure due to cardiomyopathy can occur. Cardiomegaly, tachypnoea, tachycardia, scalp sweating suggestive of cardiac failure
These signs of congestive cardiac failure due to cardiomyopathy can occur.
Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly These are relatively common findings in HIV-infected children. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
These are relatively common findings in HIV-infected children.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for HIV antibodies ELIZA is done as a screening test in all pregnant women at their first visit. It detects antibodies with a high sensitivity. False-negative results may occur early in the disease due to sero-conversion therefore repeat testing is needed at several months later(At 1 month and 6 months). A positive test is sent for Western blot for confirmation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for HIV antibodies
ELIZA is done as a screening test in all pregnant women at their first visit. It detects antibodies with a high sensitivity. False-negative results may occur early in the disease due to sero-conversion therefore repeat testing is needed at several months later(At 1 month and 6 months). A positive test is sent for Western blot for confirmation.
Western blot This is the confirmatory test and used for protein detection and also it allows to quantify the protein expression as well. Western blot
This is the confirmatory test and used for protein detection and also it allows to quantify the protein expression as well.
Full blood count This is done to assess anemia and white blood cell count Full blood count
This is done to assess anemia and white blood cell count
CD4+ counts This helps determine the degree of immunodeficiency. CD4+ counts
This helps determine the degree of immunodeficiency.
Viral load, determined by plasma HIV RNA copy number (copies/mL) Baseline values are helpful before starting treatment to measure the efficacy of the treatment. But in pregnancy even a very viral load is sufficient to cause infection in the neonate therefore, viral load assessment before starting treatment is usually not necessary Viral load, determined by plasma HIV RNA copy number (copies/mL)
Baseline values are helpful before starting treatment to measure the efficacy of the treatment. But in pregnancy even a very viral load is sufficient to cause infection in the neonate therefore, viral load assessment before starting treatment is usually not necessary
HIV DNA PCR / HIV RNA PCR in newborns This is performed in HIV exposed infants 48 hours within birth, between 1 to 2 months, and between 3 to 6 months. If two or more tests performed at age ≥1 month become as negative, with one of those performed at age ≥4 months, HIV can be excluded in a non breast fed infant. HIV DNA PCR / HIV RNA PCR in newborns
This is performed in HIV exposed infants 48 hours within birth, between 1 to 2 months, and between 3 to 6 months. If two or more tests performed at age ≥1 month become as negative, with one of those performed at age ≥4 months, HIV can be excluded in a non breast fed infant.
Viral culture in newborns This is performed in HIV exposed infants 48 hours within birth, between 1 to 2 months, and between 3 to 6 months. If two or more tests performed at age ≥1 month become as negative, with one of those performed at age ≥4 months, HIV can be excluded in a non breast fed infant. Viral culture in newborns
This is performed in HIV exposed infants 48 hours within birth, between 1 to 2 months, and between 3 to 6 months. If two or more tests performed at age ≥1 month become as negative, with one of those performed at age ≥4 months, HIV can be excluded in a non breast fed infant.
HIV IgG antibody tests in newborns Because of transplacental passage of maternal HIV antibodies this test can be positive up to 18 months in a baby. Therefore two negative results of the tests performed at least one month apart after months of age will exclude infection in infants without any symptoms HIV IgG antibody tests in newborns
Because of transplacental passage of maternal HIV antibodies this test can be positive up to 18 months in a baby. Therefore two negative results of the tests performed at least one month apart after months of age will exclude infection in infants without any symptoms

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
CD4 counts CD4 count is important for monitoring for progression of disease, to determine the initiation of Anti Retro Viral Therapy (ART), to stage the HIV disease and the need for prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm3 defines the progression to AIDS. CD4 counts
CD4 count is important for monitoring for progression of disease, to determine the initiation of Anti Retro Viral Therapy (ART), to stage the HIV disease and the need for prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm3 defines the progression to AIDS.
Viral Load Assays This is important to measure the efficacy of treatment. Viral Load Assays
This is important to measure the efficacy of treatment.
Drug resistance tests Resistance testing could be done in patients who have never received ART before initiation of ART or in failure of treatment. Genotyping, Phenotyping, Co-receptor tropism analysis are several tests to determine drug resistance Drug resistance tests
Resistance testing could be done in patients who have never received ART before initiation of ART or in failure of treatment. Genotyping, Phenotyping, Co-receptor tropism analysis are several tests to determine drug resistance
Human Leukocyte Antigen Testing This is mainly done before abacavir-based therapy because some HLA classes are at high risk of hypersensitivity to this drug. Human Leukocyte Antigen Testing
This is mainly done before abacavir-based therapy because some HLA classes are at high risk of hypersensitivity to this drug.
Lipid profile Certain medications used in HIV is known to cause various lipid abnormalities. Protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir and lopinavir, are associated with hypercholesterolemia and some nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine) causes lipoatrophy and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas abacavir increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases even without abnormalities in the lipid profile. Even though non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predisposed to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, nevirapine causes high HDL-c. Lipid profile
Certain medications used in HIV is known to cause various lipid abnormalities. Protease inhibitors, particularly indinavir and lopinavir, are associated with hypercholesterolemia and some nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, stavudine, and zidovudine) causes lipoatrophy and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas abacavir increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases even without abnormalities in the lipid profile. Even though non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors predisposed to hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, nevirapine causes high HDL-c.
Full blood count To exclude any anemia prior to surgery (caesarian section) Full blood count
To exclude any anemia prior to surgery (caesarian section)
Renal function tests- Serum Creatinine, Estimated GFR, Blood urea nitrogen To exclude any renal dysfunction prior to anesthesia as well as certain medication are likely to cause renal dysfunction Renal function tests- Serum Creatinine, Estimated GFR, Blood urea nitrogen
To exclude any renal dysfunction prior to anesthesia as well as certain medication are likely to cause renal dysfunction
Coagulation studies To exclude any coagulopathy prior to surgery (caesarian section) Coagulation studies
To exclude any coagulopathy prior to surgery (caesarian section)
Liver function tests certain medication are likely to cause liver dysfunction Liver function tests
certain medication are likely to cause liver dysfunction
Obstetric ultrasonography Dating is important by ultrasound scan for further management of pregnancy and to plan the delivery. Teratogenicity is highest during the first trimester, therefore treatment could be delayed during this time. Obstetric ultrasonography
Dating is important by ultrasound scan for further management of pregnancy and to plan the delivery. Teratogenicity is highest during the first trimester, therefore treatment could be delayed during this time.
CD4 counts CD4 cell count is important to stage the disease and CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm3 defines the progression to AIDS. CD4 counts
CD4 cell count is important to stage the disease and CD4 cell counts <200 cells/mm3 defines the progression to AIDS.
Hepatitis testing This is also done as a screening test in the first antenatal visit and when there's co-infection with Hep B management may be differed. Hepatitis testing
This is also done as a screening test in the first antenatal visit and when there's co-infection with Hep B management may be differed.
Testing for Syphilis with Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption Test (FTA-ABS), Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay; (TPPA) Maternal syphilis is thought to increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Testing for Syphilis with Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absorption Test (FTA-ABS), Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay; (TPPA)
Maternal syphilis is thought to increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Cervical cytology for Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia Cervical cytology smear and assays are done for gonorrhea and chlamydia and all sexually transmitted diseases should be treated. Cervical cytology for Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia
Cervical cytology smear and assays are done for gonorrhea and chlamydia and all sexually transmitted diseases should be treated.
Tuberculosis testing with Mantoux testing and Chest x-ray Immunosuppression from HIV infection contributes to tuberculosis reactivation. When the Mantoux test is more than 5-mm it's interpreted as positive. If positive, chest radiography may be performed. Additionally co-infection of both is common in developing countries Tuberculosis testing with Mantoux testing and Chest x-ray
Immunosuppression from HIV infection contributes to tuberculosis reactivation. When the Mantoux test is more than 5-mm it's interpreted as positive. If positive, chest radiography may be performed. Additionally co-infection of both is common in developing countries
Pap smear Genital warts ,vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical dysplasia are more common among HIV infected women. Pap smear
Genital warts ,vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical dysplasia are more common among HIV infected women.
Antibodies for Cytomegalovirus Evaluation for these opportunistic infections are important and presence of these indicates the progression to AIDS Antibodies for Cytomegalovirus
Evaluation for these opportunistic infections are important and presence of these indicates the progression to AIDS
Antibodies for Toxoplasmosis Evaluation for these opportunistic infections are important and presence of these indicates the progression to AIDS Antibodies for Toxoplasmosis
Evaluation for these opportunistic infections are important and presence of these indicates the progression to AIDS
ELIZA for HIV antibody testing This may be done as a routine test to screen for HIV in all pregnant women. ELIZA for HIV antibody testing
This may be done as a routine test to screen for HIV in all pregnant women.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Patient education and counseling Patients should be educated on the course of the disease, available treatment options, importance of anti retroviral therapy, importance of follow up. Reassurance and counseling plays an important role as well and sometimes psychiatric referral may be needed. Cigarette smoking, concurrent use of drugs and unprotected intercourse are thought to increase risk of perinatal transmission therefore patients should be advised to avoid these. Patient education and counseling
Patients should be educated on the course of the disease, available treatment options, importance of anti retroviral therapy, importance of follow up. Reassurance and counseling plays an important role as well and sometimes psychiatric referral may be needed. Cigarette smoking, concurrent use of drugs and unprotected intercourse are thought to increase risk of perinatal transmission therefore patients should be advised to avoid these.
Diet and activity During pregnancy, a healthy, well-balanced diet and normal exercise is recommended as for a normal pregnancy. Vitamin A deficiency has been noted in HIV infected mothers therefore supplementation during pregnancy might help to improve birth weight in these babies Diet and activity
During pregnancy, a healthy, well-balanced diet and normal exercise is recommended as for a normal pregnancy. Vitamin A deficiency has been noted in HIV infected mothers therefore supplementation during pregnancy might help to improve birth weight in these babies
Avoidance of breast feeding Breastfeeding is not recommended in patients infected with HIV and also patients on antiretroviral therapy as passage of antiretrovirals into breast milk has been shown. Avoidance of breast feeding
Breastfeeding is not recommended in patients infected with HIV and also patients on antiretroviral therapy as passage of antiretrovirals into breast milk has been shown.
Regular follow up Regular follow up of the pregnancy is needed similar to a normal pregnancy but carefully should be looked into certain investigations such as CD 4 counts, appearance of opportunistic infections. Regular follow up
Regular follow up of the pregnancy is needed similar to a normal pregnancy but carefully should be looked into certain investigations such as CD 4 counts, appearance of opportunistic infections.
Awareness programmes for population It's important to avoid the AIDS associated stigma in the general population. Safe sexual practices, avoidance of needle prick injuries, harms of intravenous drug abuse, Proper screening of blood products for HIV should be emphasized. Awareness programmes for population
It's important to avoid the AIDS associated stigma in the general population. Safe sexual practices, avoidance of needle prick injuries, harms of intravenous drug abuse, Proper screening of blood products for HIV should be emphasized.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Antepartum treatment of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) This plays a major role as tretament can effectively reduce the vertical transmission. Zidovudine (ZDV) is the only agent shown to reduce perinatal transmission therefore used in combination therapy in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleosides and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the classes of drugs which are used. Antepartum treatment of Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
This plays a major role as tretament can effectively reduce the vertical transmission. Zidovudine (ZDV) is the only agent shown to reduce perinatal transmission therefore used in combination therapy in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. protease inhibitors (PIs), Nucleosides and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the classes of drugs which are used.
Peripartum treatment of Antiretroviral therapy (ART) intravenous zidovudine (ZDV) during labor, may be helpful in the peripartum management. Nevirapine, Lamivudine can be used after this. Peripartum treatment of Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
intravenous zidovudine (ZDV) during labor, may be helpful in the peripartum management. Nevirapine, Lamivudine can be used after this.
Newborn Antietroviral Therapy (ART) Zidovudine is Initiated as soon after delivery in all HIV infected infants.
Nevirapine maybe helpful as well for babies of mothers who did not receive antepartum ART.
Newborn Antietroviral Therapy (ART)
Zidovudine is Initiated as soon after delivery in all HIV infected infants.
Nevirapine maybe helpful as well for babies of mothers who did not receive antepartum ART.
Co-infection with Hepatitis B Tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine are the currrent recommended drugs used when there's co-infection. Co-infection with Hepatitis B
Tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine are the currrent recommended drugs used when there's co-infection.
Elective Cesarean delivery This should be discussed with mother as elective cesarean delivery is shown to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Elective Cesarean delivery
This should be discussed with mother as elective cesarean delivery is shown to reduce the risk of vertical transmission.

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