Claude Syndrome - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Neurology

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Introduction to the disease It is a rare midbrain syndrome resulted following an occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery and causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy with contralateral cerebellar ataxia. It occurs due to dorsal tegmentum infarction including 3rd cranial nerve nucleus or fibers, red nucleus as well as fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle.. Introduction to the disease
It is a rare midbrain syndrome resulted following an occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery and causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy with contralateral cerebellar ataxia. It occurs due to dorsal tegmentum infarction including 3rd cranial nerve nucleus or fibers, red nucleus as well as fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle..
Diplopia Diplopia or the double vision may a resulted due to ipsilateral 3rd nerve palsy in claude syndrome.. Diplopia
Diplopia or the double vision may a resulted due to ipsilateral 3rd nerve palsy in claude syndrome..
Contralateral hemiparesis Involvement of other structures such as corticospinal tract fibers causes contralateral hemiparesis.. Contralateral hemiparesis
Involvement of other structures such as corticospinal tract fibers causes contralateral hemiparesis..
Contralateral hemiplegia It may also can resulted due to corticobulbar tract fibers involvement.. Contralateral hemiplegia
It may also can resulted due to corticobulbar tract fibers involvement..
Ataxia It causes damage to red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle results lead in to cerebellar hemiataxia.. Ataxia
It causes damage to red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle results lead in to cerebellar hemiataxia..
History of smoking Smoking is a known risk factor for stroke.Smoking increases the risk of stroke by about 6 folds.. History of smoking
Smoking is a known risk factor for stroke.Smoking increases the risk of stroke by about 6 folds..
Hypertension Hypertension is identified risk factor for development of stroke. About 90% of strokes occur in patients with resistant hypertension in patients who receiving treatment for hypertension.HT has a contribution for atherosclerosis. But HT itself causes small vessel diseases lead in to stroke.. Hypertension
Hypertension is identified risk factor for development of stroke. About 90% of strokes occur in patients with resistant hypertension in patients who receiving treatment for hypertension.HT has a contribution for atherosclerosis. But HT itself causes small vessel diseases lead in to stroke..
Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby increase the risk of stroke.,. Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby increase the risk of stroke.,.
History of diabetes Diabetes also a known risk factor for development of stroke.. History of diabetes
Diabetes also a known risk factor for development of stroke..
History of cerebrovascular disease and malignancy Cerebrovascular disease and malignancy are the most common causes of Claude's syndrome.. History of cerebrovascular disease and malignancy
Cerebrovascular disease and malignancy are the most common causes of Claude's syndrome..
Family history of stroke Having positive family history of stroke increase the risk of individual to get a stroke.. Family history of stroke
Having positive family history of stroke increase the risk of individual to get a stroke..

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Ptosis Ptosis also called drooping of eye lid is a manifestation of 3rd nerve palsy. 3rd nerve palsy causes paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle that results in ptosis.. Ptosis
Ptosis also called drooping of eye lid is a manifestation of 3rd nerve palsy. 3rd nerve palsy causes paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle that results in ptosis..
Deviation of the eye Downward and outward deviation of the eye can be identified during examination .Found to be occurs due to ipsilateral third nerve palsy resulted due to involvement of third nerve nucleus and/or nerve fibers. Finally the injury to the oculomotor nerve causing damage to the extraocular muscles results in downward and lateral deviation of the eye.. Deviation of the eye
Downward and outward deviation of the eye can be identified during examination .Found to be occurs due to ipsilateral third nerve palsy resulted due to involvement of third nerve nucleus and/or nerve fibers. Finally the injury to the oculomotor nerve causing damage to the extraocular muscles results in downward and lateral deviation of the eye..
Dilated pupils It is also a manifestation of 3rd nerve palsy.. Dilated pupils
It is also a manifestation of 3rd nerve palsy..
Contralateral hemiparesis It is occurs due to infarction involving other structures such as corticospinal tracts. Contralateral hemiparesis
It is occurs due to infarction involving other structures such as corticospinal tracts.
Motor incoordination /asynergy Involvement of red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle also can leads to motor incoordination in affected individuals.,. Motor incoordination /asynergy
Involvement of red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle also can leads to motor incoordination in affected individuals.,.
Dysdiadochokinesia Examination reveals dysdiadochokinesia that resulted due to involvement of the red nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle.. Dysdiadochokinesia
Examination reveals dysdiadochokinesia that resulted due to involvement of the red nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle..
Ataxia Gait assessment during examination reveals cerebellar contralateral ataxia. Occurs due to an insult to the structures such as red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle.. Ataxia
Gait assessment during examination reveals cerebellar contralateral ataxia. Occurs due to an insult to the structures such as red nucleus, brachium conjunctivum, or fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle..
Higher function assessment findings. It include memory, orientation, language and attention.Cognitive deficits appear in approximately 30% of stroke patients. However it is found to be unimpaired in most patients with claude's syndrome.,. Higher function assessment findings.
It include memory, orientation, language and attention.Cognitive deficits appear in approximately 30% of stroke patients. However it is found to be unimpaired in most patients with claude's syndrome.,.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
MRI Brain Claude syndrome diagnosis is suspected mainly by clinical history and examination. Then go for investigations. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a common form of MRI that has been used. It will show infarction of the midbrain tegmentum,3rd nerve fascicles as well as red nucleus.And it is useful to exclude certain other pathology such as ICH, ischemia, Tuberculous meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis ect..,,. MRI Brain
Claude syndrome diagnosis is suspected mainly by clinical history and examination. Then go for investigations. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a common form of MRI that has been used. It will show infarction of the midbrain tegmentum,3rd nerve fascicles as well as red nucleus.And it is useful to exclude certain other pathology such as ICH, ischemia, Tuberculous meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis ect..,,.
CT brain Even though CT not well differentiated the mid brain nuclei and fiber tracts they are useful in assessment of visible mid brain anatomy and related pathology. CT is also useful in exclusion of certain other diseases mentioned under Differential diagnosis.. CT brain
Even though CT not well differentiated the mid brain nuclei and fiber tracts they are useful in assessment of visible mid brain anatomy and related pathology. CT is also useful in exclusion of certain other diseases mentioned under Differential diagnosis..
CSF analysis It plays a key role in diagnosis of TBM which is one of the differential diagnosis. It will show lymphocytic pleocytosis, with an elevated protein and low glucose levels.. CSF analysis
It plays a key role in diagnosis of TBM which is one of the differential diagnosis. It will show lymphocytic pleocytosis, with an elevated protein and low glucose levels..

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Full blood count FBC like basic blood tests are performed to rule out infections. Full blood count
FBC like basic blood tests are performed to rule out infections.
Serum electrolytes Carried out to find whether there is associated electrolyte disturbances. Serum electrolytes
Carried out to find whether there is associated electrolyte disturbances.
Blood glucose level Random blood sugar level should be test for the assessment of DM causing hypo or hyperglycemia. . Blood glucose level
Random blood sugar level should be test for the assessment of DM causing hypo or hyperglycemia. .
Blood urea and serum creatinine Carried out as a routine laboratory investigation to assess renal functions.. Blood urea and serum creatinine
Carried out as a routine laboratory investigation to assess renal functions..
ECG Used to diagnose whether there is ongoing cardiac ischemia or other cardiac pathology.. ECG
Used to diagnose whether there is ongoing cardiac ischemia or other cardiac pathology..

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Adimit the patient, assessment of airway breathing ,circulation and other relevant examination Admit the patient to a multidisciplinary stroke unit. After taking a brief history have to do quick examination starting from ABC (airway, breathing, circulation) and manage them properly. Mean time look for blood pressure, oxygen saturation, sign of carotid bruits, peripheral pulses, cardiac auscultation, and if there are any serious abnormalities try to correct them and maintain good saturation by providing oxygen via mask. Adimit the patient, assessment of airway breathing ,circulation and other relevant examination
Admit the patient to a multidisciplinary stroke unit. After taking a brief history have to do quick examination starting from ABC (airway, breathing, circulation) and manage them properly. Mean time look for blood pressure, oxygen saturation, sign of carotid bruits, peripheral pulses, cardiac auscultation, and if there are any serious abnormalities try to correct them and maintain good saturation by providing oxygen via mask.
Assessment of GCS and neuroimagine Quickly assess the GCS .Mean time look for head trauma and signs of seizure such as tongue laceration. And if the GCS is low go for relevant management options.Brain imaging have to be performed immediately for patients with persistent neurological symptoms.. Assessment of GCS and neuroimagine
Quickly assess the GCS .Mean time look for head trauma and signs of seizure such as tongue laceration. And if the GCS is low go for relevant management options.Brain imaging have to be performed immediately for patients with persistent neurological symptoms..
Thrombolytic theraphy When CT brain excludes the presence of hemorrhage, can go for thrombolitic theraphy. Tissue plasminogen activator such as alteplase can use if present early with acute ischemic stroke.150 mg of aspirin should be given to all ischemic stroke patients immediately after brain imaging has excluded intracranial hemorrhage. It should be continued until 2 weeks after the onset of stroke symptoms. And antiplatelet or anticoagulant agent is started for secondary prevention. Proton pump inhibitors can be used if patient developed dyspepsia to Asprin. . Thrombolytic theraphy
When CT brain excludes the presence of hemorrhage, can go for thrombolitic theraphy. Tissue plasminogen activator such as alteplase can use if present early with acute ischemic stroke.150 mg of aspirin should be given to all ischemic stroke patients immediately after brain imaging has excluded intracranial hemorrhage. It should be continued until 2 weeks after the onset of stroke symptoms. And antiplatelet or anticoagulant agent is started for secondary prevention. Proton pump inhibitors can be used if patient developed dyspepsia to Asprin. .
Antithrombotic or fibrinolytic therapy in ICH If ICH occurs due to IV heparin, normalization of a-PTT have to be carried out with antidote called protamine sulphate. if there is a warfarin related ICH should be managed with vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) . If the ICH is related to thrombolysis, it should be treated with infusion of platelets . Antithrombotic or fibrinolytic therapy in ICH
If ICH occurs due to IV heparin, normalization of a-PTT have to be carried out with antidote called protamine sulphate. if there is a warfarin related ICH should be managed with vitamin K or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) . If the ICH is related to thrombolysis, it should be treated with infusion of platelets .
Neurosurgery Neurosurgery is occasionally needed in case of massive ICH.. Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery is occasionally needed in case of massive ICH..
Supportive care After patient get recover from the acute event ask them to change the posture, siting, standing and walking with caution in order to prevent secondary complications. Assess the swallowing by bedside water swallow test. Can introduce nasogastric tube if there is a swallowing difficulty.. Supportive care
After patient get recover from the acute event ask them to change the posture, siting, standing and walking with caution in order to prevent secondary complications. Assess the swallowing by bedside water swallow test. Can introduce nasogastric tube if there is a swallowing difficulty..
Early mobilization Passive full range-of-motion exercises for paralyzed limbs should be started with in first 24 hours. They should be referred to physiotherapist or rehabilitation team.. Early mobilization
Passive full range-of-motion exercises for paralyzed limbs should be started with in first 24 hours. They should be referred to physiotherapist or rehabilitation team..
Nutritional support Nutritional assessment should be carried out with in 48h of admission.Consider nutritional support in malnourished patients.. Nutritional support
Nutritional assessment should be carried out with in 48h of admission.Consider nutritional support in malnourished patients..
Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy Patients with paralyzed legs due to ischemic stroke should be given either standard heparin (5000 units subcutaneous b.d.) or LMW heparin in order to prevent deep vein thrombosis.. Prophylactic anticoagulant therapy
Patients with paralyzed legs due to ischemic stroke should be given either standard heparin (5000 units subcutaneous b.d.) or LMW heparin in order to prevent deep vein thrombosis..
Bladder bowel care Indwelling catheter can be used because patient is having hemiparesis and difficult to walk to the toilet. Use oral laxatives and maintain good fluid intake in order to overcome constipation.. Bladder bowel care
Indwelling catheter can be used because patient is having hemiparesis and difficult to walk to the toilet. Use oral laxatives and maintain good fluid intake in order to overcome constipation..

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Antiplatelet therapy All patients with ischemic stroke should take anti platelet therapy for secondary prevention. Aspirin (30-300 mg/day) or combination of aspirin (25 mg) with extended release dipyridamole (200 mg) twice or clopidogrel (75 mg OD) are the initially used anti platelet therapy.. Antiplatelet therapy
All patients with ischemic stroke should take anti platelet therapy for secondary prevention. Aspirin (30-300 mg/day) or combination of aspirin (25 mg) with extended release dipyridamole (200 mg) twice or clopidogrel (75 mg OD) are the initially used anti platelet therapy..
Anticoagulation Used if there is an associated AF or patients with ischemic stroke associated with mitral valve disease, prosthetic heart valves, or even within 3 months of MI. Heparin and warfarin can be used.. Anticoagulation
Used if there is an associated AF or patients with ischemic stroke associated with mitral valve disease, prosthetic heart valves, or even within 3 months of MI. Heparin and warfarin can be used..
Blood pressure lowering Useful in secondary prevention. Try to maintain BP less than 130/80 mmHg with the help of anti hypertensive drugs.. Blood pressure lowering
Useful in secondary prevention. Try to maintain BP less than 130/80 mmHg with the help of anti hypertensive drugs..
Lipid lowering therapy All patients with ischemic stroke should be treated with a statin for secondary prevention,if they have a total cholesterol of > 200 mg%, or LDL cholesterol > 100 mg%. Try to maintain total cholesterol below 200mg/dl and LDL below 100mg/dl.. Lipid lowering therapy
All patients with ischemic stroke should be treated with a statin for secondary prevention,if they have a total cholesterol of > 200 mg%, or LDL cholesterol > 100 mg%. Try to maintain total cholesterol below 200mg/dl and LDL below 100mg/dl..
Life style modification Ask them to cessation of smoke if they are already smoking. Ask to do regular aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes per day. Advice them to take healthy diet which contain low fat and inform about safe level of alcohol.. Life style modification
Ask them to cessation of smoke if they are already smoking. Ask to do regular aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes per day. Advice them to take healthy diet which contain low fat and inform about safe level of alcohol..
Nonsurgical conservative treatment of ptosis Those treatment methods include eye-putti ,eyelash glue and glasses which made with a crutch attachment to hold up the lid.. Nonsurgical conservative treatment of ptosis
Those treatment methods include eye-putti ,eyelash glue and glasses which made with a crutch attachment to hold up the lid..

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