HIV related candidiasis

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Asymptomatic Candida infection is a common opportunistic infection in some patients with HIV. It is due to impaired cell mediated immunity secondary to reduced CD4 cells. Some patients with candidiasis can remain asymptomatic. Asymptomatic
Candida infection is a common opportunistic infection in some patients with HIV. It is due to impaired cell mediated immunity secondary to reduced CD4 cells. Some patients with candidiasis can remain asymptomatic.
Symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis Oropharyngeal candidiasis is often the earliest sign of HIV infection. Oropharyngeal candidiasis can present in four different forms, prepseudomembranous candidiasis, hyperplastic candidiasis, erythematous candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Erythematous candidiasis, which is common in patients with HIV infection, presents with erythematous macules over the palate and the dorsum of the tongue. Presence of white plaque like lesions is the complain of pseudomembranous candidiasis which is common in patients with AIDS. Burning sensation of the oral cavity is another presentation of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Angular cheilitis presents with cracked or ulcerated lips. Symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is often the earliest sign of HIV infection. Oropharyngeal candidiasis can present in four different forms, prepseudomembranous candidiasis, hyperplastic candidiasis, erythematous candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Erythematous candidiasis, which is common in patients with HIV infection, presents with erythematous macules over the palate and the dorsum of the tongue. Presence of white plaque like lesions is the complain of pseudomembranous candidiasis which is common in patients with AIDS. Burning sensation of the oral cavity is another presentation of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Angular cheilitis presents with cracked or ulcerated lips.
Symptoms of esophageal candidiasis Patients with esophageal candidiasis often have co-excisting oropharyngeal candidiasis. Retrosternal chest pain, odynophagia and dysphagia are the usual complains of esophageal candidiasis. Symptoms of esophageal candidiasis
Patients with esophageal candidiasis often have co-excisting oropharyngeal candidiasis. Retrosternal chest pain, odynophagia and dysphagia are the usual complains of esophageal candidiasis.
Symptoms of onychomycosis Onychomycosis refers to the fungal infection of the nails. Candida infection of the nails causes disfigurement and broken nails. Symptoms of onychomycosis
Onychomycosis refers to the fungal infection of the nails. Candida infection of the nails causes disfigurement and broken nails.
Symptoms of vulovaginitis Vaginal candidiasis presents with pruritus, vaginal soreness and dysuria. Some females may complain of thick whitish discharge. Symptoms of vulovaginitis
Vaginal candidiasis presents with pruritus, vaginal soreness and dysuria. Some females may complain of thick whitish discharge.
Symptoms of candida skin infection Cutaneous infection of the Candida commonly involves the skin folds (intertrigo, groin). Pruritus and the presence of white-yellow, curd-like substance over the affected area are the usual complains. Symptoms of candida skin infection
Cutaneous infection of the Candida commonly involves the skin folds (intertrigo, groin). Pruritus and the presence of white-yellow, curd-like substance over the affected area are the usual complains.
Symptoms of sepsis Patients with AIDS can present with sepsis. Fever, generalized ill health, postural dizziness and collapse are the presenting complains. Symptoms of sepsis
Patients with AIDS can present with sepsis. Fever, generalized ill health, postural dizziness and collapse are the presenting complains.
Risk factors People who had unprotected multiple sexual relationships, intravenous drug users who share needles and health care workers who sustain accidental needle prick injuries are at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Risk factors
People who had unprotected multiple sexual relationships, intravenous drug users who share needles and health care workers who sustain accidental needle prick injuries are at risk of acquiring HIV infection.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Examination of the oral mucosa Patients with pseudomembranous candidiasis have white plaque like lesions. The lesions cannot be wiped away.
Patients with angular cheilitis have cracked or ulcerated lips, which sometimes peels off.
Examination of the oral mucosa
Patients with pseudomembranous candidiasis have white plaque like lesions. The lesions cannot be wiped away.
Patients with angular cheilitis have cracked or ulcerated lips, which sometimes peels off.
Examination of the genitalia Patients with vulval candidiasis have erythematous labia. Speculum examination shows thick, curd like vaginal discharge. Examination of the genitalia
Patients with vulval candidiasis have erythematous labia. Speculum examination shows thick, curd like vaginal discharge.
Nail changes Onycholysis (detachment of the nail from the nail bed) and paronychia (inflammation of the soft tissue around the nail) are common examination findings of candida infection of nails. Nail changes
Onycholysis (detachment of the nail from the nail bed) and paronychia (inflammation of the soft tissue around the nail) are common examination findings of candida infection of nails.
Cutaneous manifestations Affected skin is erythematous and inflammed. white-yellow, curd-like substance can be observed in some patients. Cutaneous manifestations
Affected skin is erythematous and inflammed. white-yellow, curd-like substance can be observed in some patients.
Evidence of sepsis Fever, cold clammy extremities and hypotension can be the signs of sepsis. Evidence of sepsis
Fever, cold clammy extremities and hypotension can be the signs of sepsis.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Full blood count Patients with CD4 T lymphocytes less than 200 cells/µL have a higher risk of acquiring candida infection. Full blood count
Patients with CD4 T lymphocytes less than 200 cells/µL have a higher risk of acquiring candida infection.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy Patients with esophageal candidiasis presents with adherent, whitish curd like mucosal plaques. Superficial mucosal ulcerations and evidence of inflammation can be noted in the presence of esophagitis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy
Patients with esophageal candidiasis presents with adherent, whitish curd like mucosal plaques. Superficial mucosal ulcerations and evidence of inflammation can be noted in the presence of esophagitis.
Biopsy or swab from infected areas Biopsies should be obtained from any suspicious lesions. Microscopic examination with 10% KOH smear shows budding yeast and pseudohyphae. Nail scraping of infected nails is used to obtain tissue samples for microscopic examination. Biopsy or swab from infected areas
Biopsies should be obtained from any suspicious lesions. Microscopic examination with 10% KOH smear shows budding yeast and pseudohyphae. Nail scraping of infected nails is used to obtain tissue samples for microscopic examination.
Culture Culture of the biopsy specimens enable isolation of the Candida. Candida albicans is the commonly isolated organism which accounts for about 70%–80% of oral isolates. Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis are less commonly isolated. Blood culture is helpful in diagnosing Candida sepsis. Culture
Culture of the biopsy specimens enable isolation of the Candida. Candida albicans is the commonly isolated organism which accounts for about 70%–80% of oral isolates. Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis are less commonly isolated. Blood culture is helpful in diagnosing Candida sepsis.
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) EIA detects HIV antibodies(IgG) and aids in diagnosing HIV infection. However EIA is not diagnostic of HIV. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
EIA detects HIV antibodies(IgG) and aids in diagnosing HIV infection. However EIA is not diagnostic of HIV.
Western blot Western blot is the confirmatory rest to diagnose HIV. Western blot
Western blot is the confirmatory rest to diagnose HIV.

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Full blood count Regular full blood count tests are necessary to assess the degree of immunosuppression. Full blood count
Regular full blood count tests are necessary to assess the degree of immunosuppression.
Renal profile Patients with sepsis can have multi-organ failure leading to deranged renal function. Abnormal electrolyte profile and elevated serum creatinine are common findings. Renal profile
Patients with sepsis can have multi-organ failure leading to deranged renal function. Abnormal electrolyte profile and elevated serum creatinine are common findings.
Liver function test Sepsis is a cause for acute liver failure. Elevated liver enzymes, PT/INR can be found. Liver function test
Sepsis is a cause for acute liver failure. Elevated liver enzymes, PT/INR can be found.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Health education Patients who are at risk of acquiring HIV infection should be educated about the possible ways of HIV transmission and prevention.
Patients with HIV and AIDS should be advised to avoid crowded areas to reduce the risk of acquiring infections.
Health education
Patients who are at risk of acquiring HIV infection should be educated about the possible ways of HIV transmission and prevention.
Patients with HIV and AIDS should be advised to avoid crowded areas to reduce the risk of acquiring infections.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) HAART in combination with protease inhibitors is known to reduce the incidence of candida infections. Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART)
HAART in combination with protease inhibitors is known to reduce the incidence of candida infections.
Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis Mild to moderate disease can be treated with topical clotrimazole, nystatin oral suspension, and nystatin pastilles. Severe disease may require systemic antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole). Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis
Mild to moderate disease can be treated with topical clotrimazole, nystatin oral suspension, and nystatin pastilles. Severe disease may require systemic antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole).
Treatment of esophageal candidiasis Patients with esophageal candidiasis need systemic antifungal treatment. Fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole are commonly used oral antifungals. Intravenous amphotericin B is used in severe infection. Antifungal resistant mucosal candidiasis is treated with posaconazole, high dose fluconazole and itraconazole. Treatment of esophageal candidiasis
Patients with esophageal candidiasis need systemic antifungal treatment. Fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole are commonly used oral antifungals. Intravenous amphotericin B is used in severe infection. Antifungal resistant mucosal candidiasis is treated with posaconazole, high dose fluconazole and itraconazole.
Treatment of vaginal candidiasis Isoconazole (300 mg), imidazole and tioconazole vaginal tablets are used for topical treatment.
Terconazole vaginal tablet is the drug of choice if non-Candida albicans infection is suspected. Patients with recurrent vaginal cadidiasis are given prophylactic antifungal drugs (ketoconazole, clotrimazole).
Treatment of vaginal candidiasis
Isoconazole (300 mg), imidazole and tioconazole vaginal tablets are used for topical treatment.
Terconazole vaginal tablet is the drug of choice if non-Candida albicans infection is suspected. Patients with recurrent vaginal cadidiasis are given prophylactic antifungal drugs (ketoconazole, clotrimazole).
Management of onychomycosis Onychomycosis is difficult to treat. Routinely used antifungals are fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Management of onychomycosis
Onychomycosis is difficult to treat. Routinely used antifungals are fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine.

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