Exanthema subitum

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Fever Exanthema subitum/ Roseola Infantum is a viral infection caused by human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) and type 7 (HHV-7). It is spread from person to person via respiratory fluids or saliva of infected individuals. Typically the patient presents with an acutely onset high degree of fever of 3 – 5 days. Fever
Exanthema subitum/ Roseola Infantum is a viral infection caused by human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) and type 7 (HHV-7). It is spread from person to person via respiratory fluids or saliva of infected individuals. Typically the patient presents with an acutely onset high degree of fever of 3 – 5 days.
Nasal congestion Upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, cough, runny nose or congestion are not uncommon. Nasal congestion
Upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, cough, runny nose or congestion are not uncommon.
Irritability Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever. Irritability
Patient looks very tired, irritable and ill due to the high fever.
Fits Very rarely the rapid rise of fever predisposes the patient to febrile fits. The patient may lose the consciousness. The care giver may give a history of jerking or twitching movements in the arms, legs or face which lasted for 2 to 3 minutes. Fits
Very rarely the rapid rise of fever predisposes the patient to febrile fits. The patient may lose the consciousness. The care giver may give a history of jerking or twitching movements in the arms, legs or face which lasted for 2 to 3 minutes.
Rash As the fever subsides, a rash appears. This usually begins on the trunk, spreading to the legs and neck. They are small pink or red raised spots that turn white when touched. Without any treatment, they may fade within a few hours or persist for as long as 2-3 days. Rash
As the fever subsides, a rash appears. This usually begins on the trunk, spreading to the legs and neck. They are small pink or red raised spots that turn white when touched. Without any treatment, they may fade within a few hours or persist for as long as 2-3 days.
At risk population Exanthema subitum typically occurs in children between six months and two years of age who present with high fever. At risk population
Exanthema subitum typically occurs in children between six months and two years of age who present with high fever.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Fever Patients usually have a high degree of fever. (up to 40 degrees of Celsius) Fever
Patients usually have a high degree of fever. (up to 40 degrees of Celsius)
Rash A rash appears when the fever resolves. They are small pink or red raised spots. The rash is not itchy. The size of a single spot ranges from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. Initially the rash is visible in the trunk. Late presenters may have the rash in the limbs, neck and face as well. Rash
A rash appears when the fever resolves. They are small pink or red raised spots. The rash is not itchy. The size of a single spot ranges from 2 to 5 mm in diameter. Initially the rash is visible in the trunk. Late presenters may have the rash in the limbs, neck and face as well.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Antipyretics Paracetamol/acetaminophen or ibuprofen could be given to reduce the temperature. Antipyretics
Paracetamol/acetaminophen or ibuprofen could be given to reduce the temperature.
Supportive care Rest and maintaining fluid intake are needed for support during the illness. Supportive care
Rest and maintaining fluid intake are needed for support during the illness.
Anticonvulsants Anticonvulsants are not recommended in the rare cases of Exanthema subitum which are complicated with fits. Anticonvulsants
Anticonvulsants are not recommended in the rare cases of Exanthema subitum which are complicated with fits.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Antiviral therapy This is not currently recommended. Antiviral therapy
This is not currently recommended.

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