Anthrax - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Fever Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory response Fever
Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory response
Generalized body aches Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory response Generalized body aches
Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory response
Rash Cutaneous Anthrax , , . Initially occurs as a painless vesicle that gradually becomes a painless Black Eshcar , If pain develops it is often due to secondary bacterial infection Rash
Cutaneous Anthrax , , . Initially occurs as a painless vesicle that gradually becomes a painless Black Eshcar , If pain develops it is often due to secondary bacterial infection
Cough - often non productive Inhalational Anthrax Cough - often non productive
Inhalational Anthrax
Chest pain - Retrosternal Mediastinal / Lung parenchyma inflammation following Inhalational Anthrax Chest pain - Retrosternal
Mediastinal / Lung parenchyma inflammation following Inhalational Anthrax
Shortness of breath Mediastinal / Lung parenchyma inflammation , Pleural effusion following Inhalational Anthrax Shortness of breath
Mediastinal / Lung parenchyma inflammation , Pleural effusion following Inhalational Anthrax
Loose stools Bloody diarrhea can occur Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax Loose stools Bloody diarrhea can occur
Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Haematemesis Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax Haematemesis
Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Abdominal pain Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax Abdominal pain
Due to Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Headache with associated photophobia, nausea, vomiting Due to Anthrax Meningitis Headache with associated photophobia, nausea, vomiting
Due to Anthrax Meningitis

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Pyrexia Systemic inflammatory response to infection Pyrexia
Systemic inflammatory response to infection
Rash - Papule/ Maculopapular/ Vesicular/ Eshcar Due to Cutaneous Anthrax Initially begins as a painless Papule that gradually becomes vesicular and turns into black painless eshcar Rash - Papule/ Maculopapular/ Vesicular/ Eshcar
Due to Cutaneous Anthrax Initially begins as a painless Papule that gradually becomes vesicular and turns into black painless eshcar
Lymphadenopathy Regional lymph node enlargement due to cutaneous anthrax, Generalized in case of Inhalational anthrax Lymphadenopathy
Regional lymph node enlargement due to cutaneous anthrax, Generalized in case of Inhalational anthrax
Respiratory signs - Signs of Pneumonia/ Signs of Pleural effusion Due to inhalational Anthrax Respiratory signs - Signs of Pneumonia/ Signs of Pleural effusion
Due to inhalational Anthrax
Signs of Meningism Due to Anthrax Meningitis Signs of Meningism
Due to Anthrax Meningitis

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Culture - Blood, sputum, Ascitic fluid, Meningeal fluid Nonhemolytic and are white to gray, often looking like ground glass on blood agar Culture - Blood, sputum, Ascitic fluid, Meningeal fluid
Nonhemolytic and are white to gray, often looking like ground glass on blood agar
Gram stain Gram positive rods Gram stain
Gram positive rods

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Chest Xray To monitor inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening, hemorrhagic pleural effusions Chest Xray
To monitor inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening, hemorrhagic pleural effusions
Chest CT To monitor inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening, hemorrhagic pleural effusions Chest CT
To monitor inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening, hemorrhagic pleural effusions
Chest Xray To diagnose mediastinal widening due to risk of cardiovascular collapse , To diagnose Pleural effusions Chest Xray
To diagnose mediastinal widening due to risk of cardiovascular collapse , To diagnose Pleural effusions
Chest CT To diagnose mediastinal widening due to risk of cardiovascular collapse , To diagnose Pleural effusions Chest CT
To diagnose mediastinal widening due to risk of cardiovascular collapse , To diagnose Pleural effusions
Elevated White cell count - 10,000 cells/ micro liter Due to Bacteraemia Elevated White cell count - 10,000 cells/ micro liter
Due to Bacteraemia
Elevated Liver Enzymes - Tranaminases Anthrax septicemia causes liver dysfunction Elevated Liver Enzymes - Tranaminases
Anthrax septicemia causes liver dysfunction

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Mechanical ventilation Due to severe pulmonary involvement or sepsis due to Inhalational Anthrax Mechanical ventilation
Due to severe pulmonary involvement or sepsis due to Inhalational Anthrax
Vasopressor administration For haemodynamic support due to septic shock Vasopressor administration
For haemodynamic support due to septic shock

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Penicillin V Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 8 million - 12 million units Intravenously per day in divided doses , Penicillin V
Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 8 million - 12 million units Intravenously per day in divided doses ,
Ciprofloxacin Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 200mg - 400mg Intra venously twice daily , Ciprofloxacin
Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 200mg - 400mg Intra venously twice daily ,
Tetracycline Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 250mg - 500mg orally or intra venously every 4 hourly , Tetracycline
Sensitive to Anthrax bacilli . Dose of 250mg - 500mg orally or intra venously every 4 hourly ,

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