Ancylostomiasis

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Ground itch (Cutaneous larva migrans). Due to percutaneous penetration and subsequent migration of larvae through the epidermis as a result of skin contact with fecal contaminated soil rich in hatched hookworm eggs . It should be noted that there is no penetration in to the dermis in cutaneous larva migrans. Ground itch (Cutaneous larva migrans).
Due to percutaneous penetration and subsequent migration of larvae through the epidermis as a result of skin contact with fecal contaminated soil rich in hatched hookworm eggs . It should be noted that there is no penetration in to the dermis in cutaneous larva migrans.
Cough and wheeze (Classic hookworm infection). After penetrating the dermis, larvae are transported via the lymphatics and venous system to the lungs. The migration of the larvae through the lung results in a hypersensitivity reaction . Cough and wheeze (Classic hookworm infection).
After penetrating the dermis, larvae are transported via the lymphatics and venous system to the lungs. The migration of the larvae through the lung results in a hypersensitivity reaction .
Abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea. Following migration to the trachea, larvae are swallowed and reach the intestine where they develop in to adult worms. Eosinophilic enteritis occurs as an allergic response of the gut mucosa to adult worms in the intestine . Abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea.
Following migration to the trachea, larvae are swallowed and reach the intestine where they develop in to adult worms. Eosinophilic enteritis occurs as an allergic response of the gut mucosa to adult worms in the intestine .
Fatigue (Classic hookworm infection). Adult hookworms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia . Fatigue (Classic hookworm infection).
Adult hookworms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia .

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Erythema of the skin with papules and pustules. Pruritic folliculitis occurs in areas of larval skin penetration following contact with fecal contaminated soil rich in larvae following hatching of eggs . Erythema of the skin with papules and pustules.
Pruritic folliculitis occurs in areas of larval skin penetration following contact with fecal contaminated soil rich in larvae following hatching of eggs .
Rales heard on auscultation of the lung. After penetrating the dermis (in classic hookworm infection), larvae are transported via the lymphatics and venous system to the lungs. The migration of the larvae through the lung results in a hypersensitivity reaction . Rales heard on auscultation of the lung.
After penetrating the dermis (in classic hookworm infection), larvae are transported via the lymphatics and venous system to the lungs. The migration of the larvae through the lung results in a hypersensitivity reaction .
Pallor. Following migration to the trachea, larvae are swallowed and reach the intestine where they develop in to adult worms. Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia . Pallor.
Following migration to the trachea, larvae are swallowed and reach the intestine where they develop in to adult worms. Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia .
Edema. Due to hypoalbuminemia occurring as a result of chronic intestinal blood loss . Edema.
Due to hypoalbuminemia occurring as a result of chronic intestinal blood loss .
Creeping eruption (serpiginous burrows). This occurs in cutaneous larvae migrans. Created by larvae migrating in the epidermis . Creeping eruption (serpiginous burrows). This occurs in cutaneous larvae migrans.
Created by larvae migrating in the epidermis .

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Stool examination for eggs of the worm. Adult female worms produce eggs which are excreted in feces . Stool examination for eggs of the worm.
Adult female worms produce eggs which are excreted in feces .
Eosinophilia in full blood count. Growing and moulting worms provide a major stimulus for the eosinophil response which is the hallmark of parasitic infection . Eosinophilia in full blood count.
Growing and moulting worms provide a major stimulus for the eosinophil response which is the hallmark of parasitic infection .

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Low hemoglobin levels on full blood count. Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia . Low hemoglobin levels on full blood count.
Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia .

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Iron therapy. Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia . Iron therapy.
Adult worms attach to and feed from the bowel mucosa of the infected host, resulting in intestinal blood loss, which often gives rise to iron deficiency and anemia .
High protein diet which includes all essential nutrients. Due to hypoalbuminemia occurring as a result of chronic intestinal blood loss . High protein diet which includes all essential nutrients.
Due to hypoalbuminemia occurring as a result of chronic intestinal blood loss .
Advice on use of sanitary latrines for excretory functions. Fecal pollution of the
soil, with subsequent hatching of deposited eggs and larval development results in increased likelihood of transmission of infection to humans .
Advice on use of sanitary latrines for excretory functions.
Fecal pollution of the
soil, with subsequent hatching of deposited eggs and larval development results in increased likelihood of transmission of infection to humans .
Use of protective footwear. To protect feet from contact with contaminated soil . Use of protective footwear.
To protect feet from contact with contaminated soil .

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Albendazole. 400mg - single dose. It acts by binding to parasite beta-tubulin,
inhibiting its polymerization and impairing glucose uptake .
Albendazole. 400mg - single dose.
It acts by binding to parasite beta-tubulin,
inhibiting its polymerization and impairing glucose uptake .
Mebendazole. 100mg twice daily for 3 days. It acts by binding to parasite beta-tubulin,
inhibiting its polymerization and impairing glucose uptake .
Mebendazole. 100mg twice daily for 3 days.
It acts by binding to parasite beta-tubulin,
inhibiting its polymerization and impairing glucose uptake .
Pyrantel pamoate. dose- 11 mg/kg. It acts on the parasite neuromuscular pathways and paralyses them . Pyrantel pamoate. dose- 11 mg/kg.
It acts on the parasite neuromuscular pathways and paralyses them .

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