Adenoviral enteritis - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
The features of acute gastroenteritis occurring in epidemics. The Adenovirus strains (group F, types 40 and 41) are usually transmitted via the feco-oral route by contamination of a common water source. . There is a strong association with infantile diarrhea and diarrheal outbreaks in young children . It also has been noted to be transmitted from child to child. The features of acute gastroenteritis occurring in epidemics.
The Adenovirus strains (group F, types 40 and 41) are usually transmitted via the feco-oral route by contamination of a common water source. . There is a strong association with infantile diarrhea and diarrheal outbreaks in young children . It also has been noted to be transmitted from child to child.
Asymptomatic infection Some patients can have an asymptomatic infection. Asymptomatic infection
Some patients can have an asymptomatic infection.
Incubation period of 3-10 days the Adenovirus strains that infect the intestinal mucosa has an incubation period of 3-10 days. Incubation period of 3-10 days
the Adenovirus strains that infect the intestinal mucosa has an incubation period of 3-10 days.
Watery diarrhea Adenoviral gastroenteritis causes a mild and self limiting watery diarrhea that lasts for one to two weeks. Diarrhea has been reported in more than 80% of the adenoviral gastroenteritis. Serotype 41 has a shorter duration of diarrhea. Watery diarrhea
Adenoviral gastroenteritis causes a mild and self limiting watery diarrhea that lasts for one to two weeks. Diarrhea has been reported in more than 80% of the adenoviral gastroenteritis. Serotype 41 has a shorter duration of diarrhea.
Vomiting Sudden onset vomiting co-existing with diarrhea are the salient features of viral gastroenteritis. Vomiting has been reported in about 80% of the cases. Vomiting
Sudden onset vomiting co-existing with diarrhea are the salient features of viral gastroenteritis. Vomiting has been reported in about 80% of the cases.
Abdominal pain Abdominal pain has been reported in 76% of the cases in some studies. Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain has been reported in 76% of the cases in some studies.
Fever Mild low-grade fever has been reported in above 90% of the cases. due to inflammatory response to the gastroenteritis. Fever
Mild low-grade fever has been reported in above 90% of the cases. due to inflammatory response to the gastroenteritis.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Mild fever There can be a mild fever due to the inflammatory response in the gut mucosa in almost all the cases. Mild fever
There can be a mild fever due to the inflammatory response in the gut mucosa in almost all the cases.
Prolonged skinfold Feature of mild-moderate dehydration as can be seen in most adenoviral gastroenteritis, especially in infants. It appears at 3-4% of dehydration in children. It is one of the features that co-relates best with the percentage of dehydration in infants. It's a quantitative assessment for the degree of dehydration. Prolonged skinfold
Feature of mild-moderate dehydration as can be seen in most adenoviral gastroenteritis, especially in infants. It appears at 3-4% of dehydration in children. It is one of the features that co-relates best with the percentage of dehydration in infants. It's a quantitative assessment for the degree of dehydration.
Dry mucous membranes Even though not a quantitative assesment tool in dehydration , still a first sign to appear. Dry mucous membranes
Even though not a quantitative assesment tool in dehydration , still a first sign to appear.
Sunken eyes Again not a quantitative assessment but important in initial assessment of the children. Sunken eyes
Again not a quantitative assessment but important in initial assessment of the children.
Prolonged capillary refilling time Due to circulatory collapse. An important feature in initial assessment. The time of capillary refilling can indicate the degree of dehydration. Prolonged capillary refilling time
Due to circulatory collapse. An important feature in initial assessment. The time of capillary refilling can indicate the degree of dehydration.
Restlessness Due to altered neurological status. Restlessness
Due to altered neurological status.
Acute weight loss Due to acute dehydration. Acute weight loss
Due to acute dehydration.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Specific investigation is not required in acute watery diarrhea. This is usually self limiting, and resolves without specific treatment. Specific investigation is not required in acute watery diarrhea.
This is usually self limiting, and resolves without specific treatment.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Oral rehydration therapy The viral gastroenteritis rarely require medications. The best proven management option is oral re-hydration therapy. The special hypo-osmolar Oral Re-hydration Salt Solution has the best prognosis. Dehydration occurs more quickly in infants and young children and therefore early administration of an oral re-hydration solution prevents dehydration and acidosis. Oral rehydration therapy
The viral gastroenteritis rarely require medications. The best proven management option is oral re-hydration therapy. The special hypo-osmolar Oral Re-hydration Salt Solution has the best prognosis. Dehydration occurs more quickly in infants and young children and therefore early administration of an oral re-hydration solution prevents dehydration and acidosis.
Assuring adequate nutrition Use of nutrient-rich food during the phase of illness is advisable to compensate with the loss, and in the case of children, to secure adequate growth. Assuring adequate nutrition
Use of nutrient-rich food during the phase of illness is advisable to compensate with the loss, and in the case of children, to secure adequate growth.
Zinc supplementation Zinc supplementation with ORS solution has been proven to reduce the morbidity from acute diarrhea in developing countries. Zinc deficiency has been associated with higher incidence of diarrhea so there is a compelling body of clinical data that Zn is likely to be effective both in the treatment of acute diarrhea and in its prophylaxis. The indicated dose is 10 to 30 mg per day. Zinc supplementation
Zinc supplementation with ORS solution has been proven to reduce the morbidity from acute diarrhea in developing countries. Zinc deficiency has been associated with higher incidence of diarrhea so there is a compelling body of clinical data that Zn is likely to be effective both in the treatment of acute diarrhea and in its prophylaxis. The indicated dose is 10 to 30 mg per day.
Prevention strategies The general gastroenteritis prevention strategies should be applied. The usual implications are breast-feeding, water supply and sanitation improvements, promotion of personal and domestic hygiene and weaning education/food hygiene. Prevention strategies
The general gastroenteritis prevention strategies should be applied. The usual implications are breast-feeding, water supply and sanitation improvements, promotion of personal and domestic hygiene and weaning education/food hygiene.

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