Acute gastropathy due to Norwalk agent

Infectious diseases

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Acute gastrointestinal features appear as an outbreak. Noroviruses (aka Norwalk agent) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States, and are major causative agents similarly worldwide. Norvovirus is an exclusive human pathogen causing food-borne and water-borne diseases that occur in various epidemiological settings, but commonest amongst school children and marine travelers. Acute gastrointestinal features appear as an outbreak.
Noroviruses (aka Norwalk agent) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in the United States, and are major causative agents similarly worldwide. Norvovirus is an exclusive human pathogen causing food-borne and water-borne diseases that occur in various epidemiological settings, but commonest amongst school children and marine travelers.
Self-limiting diarrhea and vomiting. The commonest symptoms of the infections reported were acute self-limiting watery diarrhea and vomiting. The symptoms resolved themselves by 24-36 hours. The symptoms are dose-dependent with the amount of bacteria ingested. Self-limiting diarrhea and vomiting.
The commonest symptoms of the infections reported were acute self-limiting watery diarrhea and vomiting. The symptoms resolved themselves by 24-36 hours. The symptoms are dose-dependent with the amount of bacteria ingested.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Features of dehydration. i.e. dry skin, sunken eyes, reduced lacrimation, low blood pressure and tachycardia. The gastropathy caused by Norwalk agent is self-limiting and mild, so examination findings are few and non-specific. Mostly what's evident are signs of dehydration. Features of dehydration. i.e. dry skin, sunken eyes, reduced lacrimation, low blood pressure and tachycardia.
The gastropathy caused by Norwalk agent is self-limiting and mild, so examination findings are few and non-specific. Mostly what's evident are signs of dehydration.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Viral PCR in stools Virus shedding is present in stools 18 hours -28 days after ingestion and detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. PCR can be used to identify different strains of the virus as well. Viral PCR in stools
Virus shedding is present in stools 18 hours -28 days after ingestion and detectable by reverse transcription-PCR. PCR can be used to identify different strains of the virus as well.
Viral antigen testing by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Viral antigens were detected by ELISA 33 hours after ingestion and lasted 10 days afterwards. This test also can be used to identify serological strains. Viral antigen testing by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Viral antigens were detected by ELISA 33 hours after ingestion and lasted 10 days afterwards. This test also can be used to identify serological strains.
Immunological Electron Microscopy Small round-structured virus can be visualized. Immunological Electron Microscopy
Small round-structured virus can be visualized.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Oral hydartion with ORS (Oral Rehydration Salt solution) A substantial reduction of mortality and morbidity in acute gastroenteritis has been reported after using low osmolality ORS solution. It is used it two phases, a rehydration phase to replace existing losses, and a maintenance phase where replacement of ongoing fluid and electrolyte losses is done. The amount to be administered should be calculated according to the weight of the patient and the severity of dehydration. Oral hydartion with ORS (Oral Rehydration Salt solution)
A substantial reduction of mortality and morbidity in acute gastroenteritis has been reported after using low osmolality ORS solution. It is used it two phases, a rehydration phase to replace existing losses, and a maintenance phase where replacement of ongoing fluid and electrolyte losses is done. The amount to be administered should be calculated according to the weight of the patient and the severity of dehydration.
Dietary management Early nutritional support has proven effective throughout the world in treating acute diarrhea. Dietary management
Early nutritional support has proven effective throughout the world in treating acute diarrhea.
Zn supplementation Zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease Zn supplementation
Zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence and severity of diarrheal disease
Intravenous rehydration Only in patients presenting with severe dehydration requiring hospital admission. Intravenous rehydration
Only in patients presenting with severe dehydration requiring hospital admission.

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