Secondary polycythaemia - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Hematology

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Introduction Secondary polycythaemia is increased haemoglobin concentration in blood above the upper normal range(according to patient's age and sex) due to increased erythropoiesis secondary to another cause( which are driven independant of the haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrows) . Introduction
Secondary polycythaemia is increased haemoglobin concentration in blood above the upper normal range(according to patient's age and sex) due to increased erythropoiesis secondary to another cause( which are driven independant of the haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrows) .
Lethargy, confusion, headache, dizziness These symptoms are due to central nervous system disturbances with hyperviscosity causing poor perfusion Lethargy, confusion, headache, dizziness
These symptoms are due to central nervous system disturbances with hyperviscosity causing poor perfusion
Features suggestive of arterial thrombosis With the hyperviscosity there is a increased risk of thrombotic complications. Arterial thrombotic complications can damage various systems giving specific features of hypoperfusion. Eg; In cardiac complications, patient will present with chest pain, difficulty in bresthing, dizziness, sweating and other features of myocardial infarction/ angina. If thrombotic complications occur in central nervous system, patient will have seizures, paralysis and paresthesia like features. If thrombosis occur in a artery supplying to limbs, patients will present with acute limb ischemia( sever pain at rest, coldness, limited movements, numbness) following features of occlusive arterial disease like pain starting few minutes after initiating walking, pain relief with resting and reproduce with walking in a same distance. Features suggestive of arterial thrombosis
With the hyperviscosity there is a increased risk of thrombotic complications. Arterial thrombotic complications can damage various systems giving specific features of hypoperfusion. Eg; In cardiac complications, patient will present with chest pain, difficulty in bresthing, dizziness, sweating and other features of myocardial infarction/ angina. If thrombotic complications occur in central nervous system, patient will have seizures, paralysis and paresthesia like features. If thrombosis occur in a artery supplying to limbs, patients will present with acute limb ischemia( sever pain at rest, coldness, limited movements, numbness) following features of occlusive arterial disease like pain starting few minutes after initiating walking, pain relief with resting and reproduce with walking in a same distance.
Features suggestive of venous thrombosis In deep vein thrombosis patient will present with acute onset severe pain, swelling, redness and warmth of the limb. Hepatic venous thrombosis will present with abdominal distension(ascites), features of liver insufficiency like nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, yellowish discoloration of eyes, generalized swelling and gastrointestinal bleeding( either as haemoptysis/ malena). In cerebral venous thrombosis patient will be confused, drowsy, may develop seizures due to cerebral venous disease.
Visual disturbances can occur due to retinopathy.This visual problems is call 'slow- flow retinopathy'.
Features suggestive of venous thrombosis
In deep vein thrombosis patient will present with acute onset severe pain, swelling, redness and warmth of the limb. Hepatic venous thrombosis will present with abdominal distension(ascites), features of liver insufficiency like nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, yellowish discoloration of eyes, generalized swelling and gastrointestinal bleeding( either as haemoptysis/ malena). In cerebral venous thrombosis patient will be confused, drowsy, may develop seizures due to cerebral venous disease.
Visual disturbances can occur due to retinopathy.This visual problems is call 'slow- flow retinopathy'.
Severe continuous small joint pain Patients will present with symptoms of gout as a result of increased uric acid production. Gout mainly affects big toe. Severe continuous small joint pain
Patients will present with symptoms of gout as a result of increased uric acid production. Gout mainly affects big toe.
Past history of congenital heart disease or history suggestive of it( blush discoloration, squatting on exercise) Polycythemia can occur secondary to cyanoic congenital heart diseases like tetralogy of fallot and transposition of great arteries as there is poor oxygenation of the blood causing poor tissue perfusion wich ultimately leads to increased eruthropoietin production to compensate the hypoxaemic csituation. Past history of congenital heart disease or history suggestive of it( blush discoloration, squatting on exercise)
Polycythemia can occur secondary to cyanoic congenital heart diseases like tetralogy of fallot and transposition of great arteries as there is poor oxygenation of the blood causing poor tissue perfusion wich ultimately leads to increased eruthropoietin production to compensate the hypoxaemic csituation.
Feature suggestive of chronic lung disease like difficulty in breathing, wheezing, acute exacerbations, progressive reduction of working capacity. Chronic pulmonary disease( eg: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) can cause progressive ariway obstruction and poor alveolar ventialtion dyspite of good alveolar perfusion. So oygenation of deoxygenated blood in lungs will be poor leading to increased erythropoietin production to compensate the need causing increased red blood cell production Feature suggestive of chronic lung disease like difficulty in breathing, wheezing, acute exacerbations, progressive reduction of working capacity.
Chronic pulmonary disease( eg: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) can cause progressive ariway obstruction and poor alveolar ventialtion dyspite of good alveolar perfusion. So oygenation of deoxygenated blood in lungs will be poor leading to increased erythropoietin production to compensate the need causing increased red blood cell production
Recidence In high altitudes there is less oxygen percentage in air compare to other areas. So air coming to alveoli will contain less oxygen causing poor exchange with blood. This induce hypoxic condition to a certain extend causing increase production of erythropoietin to increase the red cell mass which can catch more oxygen and this leads to polycythemia. Recidence
In high altitudes there is less oxygen percentage in air compare to other areas. So air coming to alveoli will contain less oxygen causing poor exchange with blood. This induce hypoxic condition to a certain extend causing increase production of erythropoietin to increase the red cell mass which can catch more oxygen and this leads to polycythemia.
History suggestive of sleep apnoea like snoring loudly in sleep, day time sleepiness, poor sleep, morning headache and reduced performance. In obese people there will be an intermittent closure/ collapse of the pharyngeal air way causing apnoic episodes during sleep. This conditionn leads to periodic alveolar hypoventilation. So periodic hypoxia in long term can induce erythropoietin production causing polycythemia. History suggestive of sleep apnoea like snoring loudly in sleep, day time sleepiness, poor sleep, morning headache and reduced performance.
In obese people there will be an intermittent closure/ collapse of the pharyngeal air way causing apnoic episodes during sleep. This conditionn leads to periodic alveolar hypoventilation. So periodic hypoxia in long term can induce erythropoietin production causing polycythemia.
history of loss of weight, loss of appetite, red coloured urine, back pain like symptoms suggestive of renal pathology. In disease conditions affecting kidneys like renal tumours, hydronephrosis and renal cysts there is associated secondary polycythemia by inappropriate increase in erythropoietin production. history of loss of weight, loss of appetite, red coloured urine, back pain like symptoms suggestive of renal pathology.
In disease conditions affecting kidneys like renal tumours, hydronephrosis and renal cysts there is associated secondary polycythemia by inappropriate increase in erythropoietin production.
Loss of weight, loss of appetite, body swelling, yellowish dyscoloration of eyes giving evidence of liver pathology. In hepatocellular carcinoma there is an increased erythropoietin in blood as hepatocellular carcinomal cells leads to erythropoietin production. This stimulates excessive increase production of red blood cells from bone marrows causing polycythemia. Loss of weight, loss of appetite, body swelling, yellowish dyscoloration of eyes giving evidence of liver pathology.
In hepatocellular carcinoma there is an increased erythropoietin in blood as hepatocellular carcinomal cells leads to erythropoietin production. This stimulates excessive increase production of red blood cells from bone marrows causing polycythemia.
recent symptoms or past history of acute breathlessness, pleuritic type chest pain, haemoptysis, dizziness and syncopy As patients are at risk of pulmonary embolism with increased risk of venous thrombo embolism following polycythemia theses presentation is very important. recent symptoms or past history of acute breathlessness, pleuritic type chest pain, haemoptysis, dizziness and syncopy
As patients are at risk of pulmonary embolism with increased risk of venous thrombo embolism following polycythemia theses presentation is very important.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Plethoric appearance Patient will have a plethoric appearance with cyanosis( due to incresed de oxygenated haemoglobin level with excess red blood cell production), congenital suffusion and retinal vein engorgement. This appearance will be prominent in face, palms, nailbeds, mucosa and conjunctiva. Plethoric appearance
Patient will have a plethoric appearance with cyanosis( due to incresed de oxygenated haemoglobin level with excess red blood cell production), congenital suffusion and retinal vein engorgement. This appearance will be prominent in face, palms, nailbeds, mucosa and conjunctiva.
Signs of arterial thrombotic complications With the hyperviscosity there is a increased risk of thrombotic complications. Arterial thrombotic complications can damage various systems giving specific features of hypoperfusion. Eg; In cardiac complications, patient will in a pain, dyspnoic following myocardial infarctions. If thrombotic complications occur in central nervous system, patient will develop seizures and/ or signs of motor/ sensory impairment and crenial nerve palsy. If thrombosis occur in a artery supplying to limbs, patients will in a severe pain, limb will be discoloured, cold and movements will be limited. Signs of arterial thrombotic complications
With the hyperviscosity there is a increased risk of thrombotic complications. Arterial thrombotic complications can damage various systems giving specific features of hypoperfusion. Eg; In cardiac complications, patient will in a pain, dyspnoic following myocardial infarctions. If thrombotic complications occur in central nervous system, patient will develop seizures and/ or signs of motor/ sensory impairment and crenial nerve palsy. If thrombosis occur in a artery supplying to limbs, patients will in a severe pain, limb will be discoloured, cold and movements will be limited.
Signs of venous thrombotic complications In deep vein thrombosis patient will in a severe pain with out moving affected limb, limb will be swollen, reddish and warm. When hepatic venous thrombosis examination will reveals generalized oedema, ascites, Jaundice due to liver insufficiency. In cerebral venous thrombosis patient will be confuse and drowsy. Signs of venous thrombotic complications
In deep vein thrombosis patient will in a severe pain with out moving affected limb, limb will be swollen, reddish and warm. When hepatic venous thrombosis examination will reveals generalized oedema, ascites, Jaundice due to liver insufficiency. In cerebral venous thrombosis patient will be confuse and drowsy.
High blood pressure Patients will have hypertension due to poor tissue perfusion. High blood pressure
Patients will have hypertension due to poor tissue perfusion.
Nicotin stains in lips/ fingers and cigarette smell during examination Heavy cigarette smoking is a predisposing factor for secondary polycythemia. So these signs will helpful especially if the patient denies cigarette smoking. Nicotin stains in lips/ fingers and cigarette smell during examination
Heavy cigarette smoking is a predisposing factor for secondary polycythemia. So these signs will helpful especially if the patient denies cigarette smoking.
Features of dehydration Dry skin and mucus membranes, reduced urine out put will give evidence of dehydration which is an cause for relative polycythemia. Features of dehydration
Dry skin and mucus membranes, reduced urine out put will give evidence of dehydration which is an cause for relative polycythemia.
Respiratory system examination In a COPD patient tachypnoea, use of accessory muscles, hyperinflated lungs, reduced costocondral distance, reduced lung expansion, hyperresonant percussion note will be present. Respiratory system examination
In a COPD patient tachypnoea, use of accessory muscles, hyperinflated lungs, reduced costocondral distance, reduced lung expansion, hyperresonant percussion note will be present.
Cardiovascular system examination In cyanotic heart diseases patients will present with cyanosis, finger clubbing and other disease specific features.
eg; Tetralogy of fallot- ejection systolic murmur in pulmonary area, hypercyanotic spells
Cardiovascular system examination
In cyanotic heart diseases patients will present with cyanosis, finger clubbing and other disease specific features.
eg; Tetralogy of fallot- ejection systolic murmur in pulmonary area, hypercyanotic spells
Abdominal examination Splenomegaly is found in majority of patients with polycythemia due to increased red blood cell destruction .
Hepatomegaly with features of chronic liver failure( jaundice, ascites, oedema) will present in a hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ballatable mass will present in a hydronephrosis, renal cell carcinoma and cystic kidney.
All these leads to secondary polycythemia.
Abdominal examination
Splenomegaly is found in majority of patients with polycythemia due to increased red blood cell destruction .
Hepatomegaly with features of chronic liver failure( jaundice, ascites, oedema) will present in a hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ballatable mass will present in a hydronephrosis, renal cell carcinoma and cystic kidney.
All these leads to secondary polycythemia.
Measurement of BMI using height and weight Morbid obesity is a cause for this as it leads to obstructive sleep apnea causing alveolar hypoventilation. Measurement of BMI using height and weight
Morbid obesity is a cause for this as it leads to obstructive sleep apnea causing alveolar hypoventilation.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Full blood count Due to excessive production of red blood cells, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and pack cell volume will be high. Full blood count
Due to excessive production of red blood cells, red blood cell count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and pack cell volume will be high.
Total red cell mass and plasma volume measurement This is useful in differentiating absolute polycythemia from relative polycythemia. In absolute polycythemia there will be increase in total red cell mass and normal plasma volume. In relative polycythemia there will ne normal Total red cell mass with reduced plasma volume. Total red cell mass and plasma volume measurement
This is useful in differentiating absolute polycythemia from relative polycythemia. In absolute polycythemia there will be increase in total red cell mass and normal plasma volume. In relative polycythemia there will ne normal Total red cell mass with reduced plasma volume.
Peripheral blood film This will show incresed red cell mass with normochromic and normocytic red blood cells. Peripheral blood film
This will show incresed red cell mass with normochromic and normocytic red blood cells.
Serum erythropoietin level This will behigh due to excess production of the hormone. Serum erythropoietin level
This will behigh due to excess production of the hormone.
Carboxyhemoglobin levels The level of Carboxyhemoglobin will be high in patients who are smoking cigarette. So this also useful in identifying the primary cause. Carboxyhemoglobin levels
The level of Carboxyhemoglobin will be high in patients who are smoking cigarette. So this also useful in identifying the primary cause.
Assessing hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve using oxygen saturation and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate This is useful in identifying haemoglobin affinity in patients. As high affinity can induce excessive erythrocyte production leading to polycythemia. Assessing hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve using oxygen saturation and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate
This is useful in identifying haemoglobin affinity in patients. As high affinity can induce excessive erythrocyte production leading to polycythemia.
Bone marrow biopsy This will shows hyper cellular bone marrows with prominent megakaryocytes. Bone marrow biopsy
This will shows hyper cellular bone marrows with prominent megakaryocytes.
Ultrasound scan of the abdomen, CT scan/ MRI scan As hepatocellular carcinoma, hydronephrosis, renal cell carcinoma, cystic kidney and some brain tumours( eg; cerebellar haemangioblastoma) can cause secondary polycythemia, these imaging studies will helpful in identifying them and associated other complications. Ultrasound scan of the abdomen, CT scan/ MRI scan
As hepatocellular carcinoma, hydronephrosis, renal cell carcinoma, cystic kidney and some brain tumours( eg; cerebellar haemangioblastoma) can cause secondary polycythemia, these imaging studies will helpful in identifying them and associated other complications.
Chest X ray As some chronic lung diseases can cause this condition chest X ray will also helpful.
Eg: In COPD patients Chest X ray will show hyperinflated lungs, flat diaphragms and tubular heart.
Chest X ray
As some chronic lung diseases can cause this condition chest X ray will also helpful.
Eg: In COPD patients Chest X ray will show hyperinflated lungs, flat diaphragms and tubular heart.
ECG, Echocardiogram As cyanotic congenital heart diseases can lead to polycythemia this is useful in identifying the patients cardiac abnormality and current status. ECG, Echocardiogram
As cyanotic congenital heart diseases can lead to polycythemia this is useful in identifying the patients cardiac abnormality and current status.
Arterial oxygen saturation measure by Arterial Blood Gas analysis This is useful in identifying hypoxia as a primary cause. Arterial oxygen saturation measure by Arterial Blood Gas analysis
This is useful in identifying hypoxia as a primary cause.
Karyotyping Presence of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Janus-associated kinase 2(JAK2) mutation in haemopoietic cells will helpful in differentiating Polycythemia Rubra Vera from secondary polycythemia. Karyotyping
Presence of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Janus-associated kinase 2(JAK2) mutation in haemopoietic cells will helpful in differentiating Polycythemia Rubra Vera from secondary polycythemia.

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Full blood count This is useful in assessing the patients respond to the treatments by looking at blood counts Full blood count
This is useful in assessing the patients respond to the treatments by looking at blood counts
Ultrasound scan , CT/ MRI brain These tests are useful in follow up if identified any primary cause as mentioned in the diagnosis section .
Also if the patient present with thrombotic complications in central nervous system these test are useful.
Ultrasound scan , CT/ MRI brain
These tests are useful in follow up if identified any primary cause as mentioned in the diagnosis section .
Also if the patient present with thrombotic complications in central nervous system these test are useful.
ECG and Echocardiogram As cyanotic congenital heart diseases can lead to polycythemia this is useful in identifying the patients cardiac abnormality and current status in follow up. Also if the patient present with thrombotic complicatients in cardiovascular system these tests are helpful in confirmation and assessing the patients current condition. ECG and Echocardiogram
As cyanotic congenital heart diseases can lead to polycythemia this is useful in identifying the patients cardiac abnormality and current status in follow up. Also if the patient present with thrombotic complicatients in cardiovascular system these tests are helpful in confirmation and assessing the patients current condition.
Doppler studies If patient present with peripheral thrombotic complications causing limb ischemia doppler studies will useful in assessing the current condition and in deciding the further treatment. Doppler studies
If patient present with peripheral thrombotic complications causing limb ischemia doppler studies will useful in assessing the current condition and in deciding the further treatment.
Full blood count This is useful in assessing the patients polycythemic condition. The haematocrit should be monitored and has to be maintained below 0.45. . Full blood count
This is useful in assessing the patients polycythemic condition. The haematocrit should be monitored and has to be maintained below 0.45. .
arterial oxygen saturation This is useful in assessing the oxygen saturation of the patient as hypoxia is common. arterial oxygen saturation
This is useful in assessing the oxygen saturation of the patient as hypoxia is common.
Coagulation profile (PT/INR and APTT) Basic coagulation tests such as PT/INR and APTT has to be carried out to see any procoagulabilty which could be detected by them. Coagulation profile (PT/INR and APTT)
Basic coagulation tests such as PT/INR and APTT has to be carried out to see any procoagulabilty which could be detected by them.
Thormbophilic screening studies (Hams test, Factor V laden, Protein C, Protein S) Thrombophilic screening studies such as Hams test, Factor V laden, Protein C, Protein S has to be done to detect other concurrent prothrombotic diseases. Thormbophilic screening studies (Hams test, Factor V laden, Protein C, Protein S)
Thrombophilic screening studies such as Hams test, Factor V laden, Protein C, Protein S has to be done to detect other concurrent prothrombotic diseases.
ANA, ds DNA Possibility of connective tissue disorder has to excluded. ANA, ds DNA
Possibility of connective tissue disorder has to excluded.
Full blood cunt This also useful in screening as it gives an idea about the blood counts but total red cell mass measurement should be done with this to confirm the condition. Full blood cunt
This also useful in screening as it gives an idea about the blood counts but total red cell mass measurement should be done with this to confirm the condition.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Health education Patient should be educated regarding the disease, primary cause for the disease, symptoms associated with, possible complications, available treatment options and prognosis. Health education
Patient should be educated regarding the disease, primary cause for the disease, symptoms associated with, possible complications, available treatment options and prognosis.
Stop smoking Heavy smoking is a cause for secondary polycythemia and also a for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease progression. So patients should be adviced to stop smoking. Stop smoking
Heavy smoking is a cause for secondary polycythemia and also a for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease progression. So patients should be adviced to stop smoking.
Reduced body weight Morbid obesity is a cause for secondary thrombocytopenia as it leads to obstructive sleep apnea causing alveolar hypoventilation. So patient should be advised to maintain body weight in normal range for height. Increasing quality of the diet( balanced diet need to be taken) while reducing the quantity and regular physical exercise is advisable. Reduced body weight
Morbid obesity is a cause for secondary thrombocytopenia as it leads to obstructive sleep apnea causing alveolar hypoventilation. So patient should be advised to maintain body weight in normal range for height. Increasing quality of the diet( balanced diet need to be taken) while reducing the quantity and regular physical exercise is advisable.
DVT prophylaxis Can be non pharmacological and pharmacology modalities. Non pharmacological moralities are good hydration, adequate mobilization of the patient, limb physiotherapy and thrombo embolic detergenic stocking. The main pharmacological propylaxis is low molecular weight heparin in high risk patients if no contraindication (eg: Sub cutaneous enoxaparin 0.5mg/kg/day). DVT prophylaxis
Can be non pharmacological and pharmacology modalities. Non pharmacological moralities are good hydration, adequate mobilization of the patient, limb physiotherapy and thrombo embolic detergenic stocking. The main pharmacological propylaxis is low molecular weight heparin in high risk patients if no contraindication (eg: Sub cutaneous enoxaparin 0.5mg/kg/day).
ABC management in emergency situation The possible emergencies in patients with polycythaemia are pulmonary embolism, massive stoke, myocardial infarction, cerebral venous thrombosis, mesenteric infarction. In these circumstances ABC management is essentially life saving. Airway has to be secured : foreign body has to be removed, maneuvers such as jaw thrust, chin lift and head tilt has to done. Oral air way, laryngeal mask air way and intubation would be beneficial if not corrected by simple maneuvers. Breathing has to be assessed and respiratory support should be given with ambu ventilation or via a ventilator. Circulation has to be assessed and fluid resuscitation with inotrope support has to started as indicated. ABC management in emergency situation
The possible emergencies in patients with polycythaemia are pulmonary embolism, massive stoke, myocardial infarction, cerebral venous thrombosis, mesenteric infarction. In these circumstances ABC management is essentially life saving. Airway has to be secured : foreign body has to be removed, maneuvers such as jaw thrust, chin lift and head tilt has to done. Oral air way, laryngeal mask air way and intubation would be beneficial if not corrected by simple maneuvers. Breathing has to be assessed and respiratory support should be given with ambu ventilation or via a ventilator. Circulation has to be assessed and fluid resuscitation with inotrope support has to started as indicated.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Venesection(phlebotomy) Venesection is aimed to reduce haematocrit value less then 0.45 to reduce the risk of thrombosis.This is useful in patients with symptoms like dizziness, dyspnoea or angina, with increased haematocrit level more the 0.56 and in patients with past history of thrombotic complications. Venesection(phlebotomy)
Venesection is aimed to reduce haematocrit value less then 0.45 to reduce the risk of thrombosis.This is useful in patients with symptoms like dizziness, dyspnoea or angina, with increased haematocrit level more the 0.56 and in patients with past history of thrombotic complications.
Surgical correction of congenital heart diseases Polycythemia can occur secondary to cyanoic congenital heart diseases like tetralogy of fallot and transposition of great arteries as there is poor oxygenation of the blood causing poor tissue perfusion wich ultimately leads to increased eruthropoietin production to compensate the hypoxaemic csituation.
Surgical management is the potion for these congenital heart diseases,
eg; For tetralogy of fallot, close VSD, relieve right ventricular out flow obstruction and modified Blaock- Taussig shunt will be uhelpful.
For transposition of great arteries, balloon atrial septotomy and surgery with arterial switch procedure is needed.
Surgical correction of congenital heart diseases
Polycythemia can occur secondary to cyanoic congenital heart diseases like tetralogy of fallot and transposition of great arteries as there is poor oxygenation of the blood causing poor tissue perfusion wich ultimately leads to increased eruthropoietin production to compensate the hypoxaemic csituation.
Surgical management is the potion for these congenital heart diseases,
eg; For tetralogy of fallot, close VSD, relieve right ventricular out flow obstruction and modified Blaock- Taussig shunt will be uhelpful.
For transposition of great arteries, balloon atrial septotomy and surgery with arterial switch procedure is needed.
Long term oxygen therapy, mucolytics, smoking cessation will useful in COPD patients Chronic pulmonary disease( eg: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) can cause progressive ariway obstruction and poor alveolar ventialtion dyspite of good alveolar perfusion. So oygenation of deoxygenated blood in lungs will be poor leading to increased erythropoietin production to compensate the need causing increased red blood cell production.
In these patients smoking cessation will be useful in reducing the progression of the disease while Long term oxygen therapy and mucolytics will useful in improving alveolar ventilation.
Long term oxygen therapy, mucolytics, smoking cessation will useful in COPD patients
Chronic pulmonary disease( eg: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) can cause progressive ariway obstruction and poor alveolar ventialtion dyspite of good alveolar perfusion. So oygenation of deoxygenated blood in lungs will be poor leading to increased erythropoietin production to compensate the need causing increased red blood cell production.
In these patients smoking cessation will be useful in reducing the progression of the disease while Long term oxygen therapy and mucolytics will useful in improving alveolar ventilation.
There is no specific management for high altitudes causing polycythemia other than changing the residence. In high altitudes there is less oxygen percentage in air compare to other areas. So air coming to alveoli will contain less oxygen causing poor exchange with blood. This induce hypoxic condition to a certain extend causing increase production of erythropoietin to increase the red cell mass which can catch more oxygen and this leads to polycythemia. No treatment will be needed in this condition as this is usually not troublesome. There is no specific management for high altitudes causing polycythemia other than changing the residence.
In high altitudes there is less oxygen percentage in air compare to other areas. So air coming to alveoli will contain less oxygen causing poor exchange with blood. This induce hypoxic condition to a certain extend causing increase production of erythropoietin to increase the red cell mass which can catch more oxygen and this leads to polycythemia. No treatment will be needed in this condition as this is usually not troublesome.
Reduction of obesity by diet control and life style modifications and CPAP ventilation in resistant cases will be helpful in sleep apnoea. In obese people there will be an intermittent closure/ collapse of the pharyngeal air way causing apnoic episodes during sleep. This conditionn leads to periodic alveolar hypoventilation. So periodic hypoxia in long term can induce erythropoietin production causing polycythemia.
weight reduction by diet control, life style modifications and with regular physical exercise is needed. CPAP via nasal mask during sleep will be useful. If the condition in intractable surgical procedures can use to relieve the pharyngeal obstruction( eg; tonsillectomy).
Reduction of obesity by diet control and life style modifications and CPAP ventilation in resistant cases will be helpful in sleep apnoea.
In obese people there will be an intermittent closure/ collapse of the pharyngeal air way causing apnoic episodes during sleep. This conditionn leads to periodic alveolar hypoventilation. So periodic hypoxia in long term can induce erythropoietin production causing polycythemia.
weight reduction by diet control, life style modifications and with regular physical exercise is needed. CPAP via nasal mask during sleep will be useful. If the condition in intractable surgical procedures can use to relieve the pharyngeal obstruction( eg; tonsillectomy).
Surgical management for renal pathologies like renal tumour and correcting primary cause for hydronephrosis In disease conditions affecting kidneys like renal tumours, hydronephrosis and renal cysts there is associated secondary polycythemia by inappropriate increase in erythropoietin production.
Treating these conditions.
Renal tumour, radical nephrectomy is the gold stranded treatment.
Hydronephrosis can resolve with relieving primary renal/ ureteric obstruction (eg;proximal dilatation for obstruction, removing renal/ureteric stones).
For solitary large cysts, cystectomy will be helpful.
Surgical management for renal pathologies like renal tumour and correcting primary cause for hydronephrosis
In disease conditions affecting kidneys like renal tumours, hydronephrosis and renal cysts there is associated secondary polycythemia by inappropriate increase in erythropoietin production.
Treating these conditions.
Renal tumour, radical nephrectomy is the gold stranded treatment.
Hydronephrosis can resolve with relieving primary renal/ ureteric obstruction (eg;proximal dilatation for obstruction, removing renal/ureteric stones).
For solitary large cysts, cystectomy will be helpful.
Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma In hepatocellular carcinoma there is an increased erythropoietin in blood as hepatocellular carcinomal cells leads to erythropoietin production. This stimulates excessive increase production of red blood cells from bone marrows causing polycythemia.
In hepatocellular carcinoma resection of solitary tumour, liver transplantation are the main treatment options available.
Surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma
In hepatocellular carcinoma there is an increased erythropoietin in blood as hepatocellular carcinomal cells leads to erythropoietin production. This stimulates excessive increase production of red blood cells from bone marrows causing polycythemia.
In hepatocellular carcinoma resection of solitary tumour, liver transplantation are the main treatment options available.

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