Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia - Clinicals, Diagnosis, and Management

Hematology

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Family history of sideroblastic anaemia There are two forms of sideroblastic anemia: congenital sideroblastic anemia and acquired sideroblastic anemia. Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia is a condition characterized by anemia with the emergence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Its inheritance is X linked recessive affecting mainly males and manifestation of the disease may be early or late during the first 3 decades of life. This is due to the mutations in the erythroid-specific ALA synthase gene (ALAS) . Family history of sideroblastic anaemia
There are two forms of sideroblastic anemia: congenital sideroblastic anemia and acquired sideroblastic anemia. Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia is a condition characterized by anemia with the emergence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. Its inheritance is X linked recessive affecting mainly males and manifestation of the disease may be early or late during the first 3 decades of life. This is due to the mutations in the erythroid-specific ALA synthase gene (ALAS) .
Shortness of breath on exertion on exertion malaise, fatigue These are symptoms of anemia, Anaemia cause low oxygenation of the blood, Hypoxia can be sensed by the carotid chemoreceptors and it will increase the depth of respiration. If the patient has heart failure anemia can worsen the symptoms. Anaemia causes low oxygenation of the blood leading to reduced energy production, and lack of energy. Shortness of breath on exertion on exertion malaise, fatigue
These are symptoms of anemia, Anaemia cause low oxygenation of the blood, Hypoxia can be sensed by the carotid chemoreceptors and it will increase the depth of respiration. If the patient has heart failure anemia can worsen the symptoms. Anaemia causes low oxygenation of the blood leading to reduced energy production, and lack of energy.
Complications due to haemasiderosis -Shortness of breath, right hypochondrial pain In sideroblastic anaemia there is increased absorption of iron and increased storage. Iron, nitrogen, and protein are the content of the hemosiderin granules. Excess iron can be deposited in the liver, heart and endocrine organs causing organ failures. Complications due to haemasiderosis -Shortness of breath, right hypochondrial pain
In sideroblastic anaemia there is increased absorption of iron and increased storage. Iron, nitrogen, and protein are the content of the hemosiderin granules. Excess iron can be deposited in the liver, heart and endocrine organs causing organ failures.
Problems with balance and gait There is an association between spinocerebellar disorder and hereditary sideroblastic anaemia which is characterised by progressive ataxia and incoordination. Ataxic form of the disease is mostly inherited as autosomal recessive and dominant. Problems with balance and gait
There is an association between spinocerebellar disorder and hereditary sideroblastic anaemia which is characterised by progressive ataxia and incoordination. Ataxic form of the disease is mostly inherited as autosomal recessive and dominant.
Speech problems Dysarthria is seen in spinocerebellar disorders. Speech problems
Dysarthria is seen in spinocerebellar disorders.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Pallor Due to the anaemia. Pallor
Due to the anaemia.
Dyspnea Anaemia leading to hypoxia may be the aetiology for exertional dyspnea. Dyspnea
Anaemia leading to hypoxia may be the aetiology for exertional dyspnea.
Murmers Due to the anaemia patient can develop flow murmurs, as a result of the hyperdynamic circulation. Murmers
Due to the anaemia patient can develop flow murmurs, as a result of the hyperdynamic circulation.
Features of cardiac failure: exrtional dyspnea, elevated jugular venous pressure, tender hepatomegally, peripheral oedema Patients with existing heart disease may have aggravation due to anaemia. Features of cardiac failure: exrtional dyspnea, elevated jugular venous pressure, tender hepatomegally, peripheral oedema
Patients with existing heart disease may have aggravation due to anaemia.
Spasticity This is usually mild, and there is no sensory impairment. Spasticity
This is usually mild, and there is no sensory impairment.
Incoordination and ataxia Sideroblastic anaemia is associated with non-progressive spinocerebellar syndrome in an X linked recessive manner. Incoordination and ataxia
Sideroblastic anaemia is associated with non-progressive spinocerebellar syndrome in an X linked recessive manner.
Failure of growth Males affected by sideroblastic anemia shows retardation of growth. Failure of growth
Males affected by sideroblastic anemia shows retardation of growth.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Full blood count Will show anaemia with low haemoglobin. Red cell indices such as mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume are reduced as this is a microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Full blood count
Will show anaemia with low haemoglobin. Red cell indices such as mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume are reduced as this is a microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
Blood picture Shows microcytic hypochromic anaemia, anisocytosis, cigar shaped cells and a dimorphic peripheral blood smear with normocytic and microcytic picture. Blood picture
Shows microcytic hypochromic anaemia, anisocytosis, cigar shaped cells and a dimorphic peripheral blood smear with normocytic and microcytic picture.
Serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin Raised serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin is seen. Serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin
Raised serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin is seen.
Bone marrow examination Bone marrow examination shows erythroblastic hyperplasia, ring sideroblasts, and marrow with increased iron. Erythroblasts with iron-loaded mitochondria visualized by Prussian blue staining (Perls’ reaction), they are seen as a perinuclear ring of blue granules and are known as ring sideroblasts. Bone marrow examination
Bone marrow examination shows erythroblastic hyperplasia, ring sideroblasts, and marrow with increased iron. Erythroblasts with iron-loaded mitochondria visualized by Prussian blue staining (Perls’ reaction), they are seen as a perinuclear ring of blue granules and are known as ring sideroblasts.
Serum iron Serum iron is usually elevated. There is low Fe incorporation into erythrocytes, but normal erythrocyte survival is seen. Serum iron
Serum iron is usually elevated. There is low Fe incorporation into erythrocytes, but normal erythrocyte survival is seen.
Iron-binding capacity Decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity is seen. Iron-binding capacity
Decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity is seen.
Erythrocyte survival (51 Cr) Erythrocyte survival is normal. Erythrocyte survival (51 Cr)
Erythrocyte survival is normal.

Investigations - Management

Fact Explanation
Haemoglobin level Haemoglobin level need to assess the response to therapy. Usually with the pyridoxine therapy, there will be 2-4g/100ml of improvement in the level of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin level
Haemoglobin level need to assess the response to therapy. Usually with the pyridoxine therapy, there will be 2-4g/100ml of improvement in the level of haemoglobin.
Blood picture Microcytic hypochromic anaemia can be reversed with the pyridoxine treatment. Blood picture
Microcytic hypochromic anaemia can be reversed with the pyridoxine treatment.
Echocardiography Hemosiderosis can be due to excess iron deposition, that can affects cardiac function. Echocardiography
Hemosiderosis can be due to excess iron deposition, that can affects cardiac function.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI shows cerebellar atrophy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRI shows cerebellar atrophy.
Genomic analysis (PCR) Mutation (ALAS) detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of those affected, targeted education of families, early treatment with pyridoxine and prevention of iron overload. Genomic analysis (PCR)
Mutation (ALAS) detection is helpful for the early diagnosis of those affected, targeted education of families, early treatment with pyridoxine and prevention of iron overload.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Blood transfusion Severe symptomatic anaemia require blood transfusion. Blood transfusion
Severe symptomatic anaemia require blood transfusion.
Supportive management If complications like liver, heart failure occur due to hemosiderosis, they need supportive treatment. Phlebotomy can be used to prevent and treat iron overload. Supportive management
If complications like liver, heart failure occur due to hemosiderosis, they need supportive treatment. Phlebotomy can be used to prevent and treat iron overload.
Genetic councelling This is needed specially when a carrier state is diagnosed by DNA screening. Prenatal diagnosis is unnecessary unless there is a pyridoxine refractory severe anaemia. Genetic councelling
This is needed specially when a carrier state is diagnosed by DNA screening. Prenatal diagnosis is unnecessary unless there is a pyridoxine refractory severe anaemia.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Pyridoxine therapy Pyridoxine 100 mg daily for 6 months will usually given to increase the haemoglobin level at a rate of 2-4g/100ml. There can be an incomplete response in some patients. Pyridoxine therapy
Pyridoxine 100 mg daily for 6 months will usually given to increase the haemoglobin level at a rate of 2-4g/100ml. There can be an incomplete response in some patients.

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