Impetigo in Children

Dermatology

Clinicals - History

Fact Explanation
Thin walled, easily ruptured vesicles with a distribution on face, neck with yellow colored exudate. Pathognomonic feature in the non bullous form caued by infection with Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci or Staphylococci. Thin walled, easily ruptured vesicles with a distribution on face, neck with yellow colored exudate.
Pathognomonic feature in the non bullous form caued by infection with Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci or Staphylococci.
Blisters of 1-2cm in diameter on face and extremities This presentation is associated with the bullous form of impetigo caused by Infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Blisters of 1-2cm in diameter on face and extremities
This presentation is associated with the bullous form of impetigo caused by Infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
Recent history of eczema, scabies, chickenpox or abrasions Impetigo can be a result of secondary infection of traumatized and open lesions by auto inoculation of bacteria. Recent history of eczema, scabies, chickenpox or abrasions
Impetigo can be a result of secondary infection of traumatized and open lesions by auto inoculation of bacteria.
Pruritus Is an occasional complaint and is often nocturnal. Pruritus
Is an occasional complaint and is often nocturnal.
Lesions are painless and non-erythematous The superficial skin has poor blood supply and it is pain insensitive. Lesions are painless and non-erythematous
The superficial skin has poor blood supply and it is pain insensitive.
Neonatal bullous impetigo Bullae are seen in the diaper area. Rupture of bullae occurs easily, leaving a narrow rim of scales at the edge of a shallow, moist erosion Neonatal bullous impetigo
Bullae are seen in the diaper area. Rupture of bullae occurs easily, leaving a narrow rim of scales at the edge of a shallow, moist erosion
Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis Occurs as a complication of streptococcal skin infection. The following symptoms and signs are the commonest: oliguria, hematuria, elevated blood pressure, features of acute renal failure such as oliguria, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain ,drowsiness. This is due to an immunological cross reaction against antigens of nephritogenic strains of Group A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococci. Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Occurs as a complication of streptococcal skin infection. The following symptoms and signs are the commonest: oliguria, hematuria, elevated blood pressure, features of acute renal failure such as oliguria, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain ,drowsiness. This is due to an immunological cross reaction against antigens of nephritogenic strains of Group A Beta-Haemolytic Streptococci.

Clinicals - Examination

Fact Explanation
Thin walled, vesicles on face, neck with yellow colored exudate , Pathognomonic feature in the non bullous form caued by infection with Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci or Staphylococci. Thin walled, vesicles on face, neck with yellow colored exudate ,
Pathognomonic feature in the non bullous form caued by infection with Group A beta hemolytic Streptococci or Staphylococci.
Blisters of 1-2cm in diameter on face and extremities , This presentation is associated with the bullous form of impetigo caused by Infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Blisters of 1-2cm in diameter on face and extremities ,
This presentation is associated with the bullous form of impetigo caused by Infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
Regional lymph node enlargement Immune reaction following extension of the infection deeper in to the skin which has got better blood any lymph drainage Regional lymph node enlargement
Immune reaction following extension of the infection deeper in to the skin which has got better blood any lymph drainage
High blood pressure Observed in post streptococcal glomerulonephritis that causes acute renal failure. High blood pressure
Observed in post streptococcal glomerulonephritis that causes acute renal failure.

Investigations - Diagnosis

Fact Explanation
Culture, antibiogram, gram stain of blister fluid For identification of the pathogenic bacteria and to determine antibiotic sensitivity. If swab culture is negative, gram stain is useful in identifying pathogens. Culture, antibiogram, gram stain of blister fluid
For identification of the pathogenic bacteria and to determine antibiotic sensitivity. If swab culture is negative, gram stain is useful in identifying pathogens.
Blood culture and antibiogram A positive blood culture should prompt vigorous treatment, that includes hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Blood culture and antibiogram
A positive blood culture should prompt vigorous treatment, that includes hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics.
Full blood count with differential leucocyte count. A neutrophilic leukocytosis indicates complicated impetigo with possible cellulitis or sepsis. Full blood count with differential leucocyte count.
A neutrophilic leukocytosis indicates complicated impetigo with possible cellulitis or sepsis.
C-reactive protein (CRP) An inflammatory market that becomes elevated in acute inflammation or bacterial infection. Useful in diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy in complicated impetigo. C-reactive protein (CRP)
An inflammatory market that becomes elevated in acute inflammation or bacterial infection. Useful in diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy in complicated impetigo.
Assessment of renal function: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) To asess renal functions in suspected post- streptococcal glomerular nephritis. Assessment of renal function: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
To asess renal functions in suspected post- streptococcal glomerular nephritis.
Anti Streptolysin O Titers (ASOT) A raised ASOT is indicative of a diagnosis of post- streptococcal glomerular nephritis. Anti Streptolysin O Titers (ASOT)
A raised ASOT is indicative of a diagnosis of post- streptococcal glomerular nephritis.

Management - Supportive

Fact Explanation
Antipyretics Paracetamol at a dose of 15mg/kg/day can be used. This is useful in managing complicated cases of impetigo where the child may develop fever. Antipyretics
Paracetamol at a dose of 15mg/kg/day can be used. This is useful in managing complicated cases of impetigo where the child may develop fever.
Education on hygienic practices Educate the patient and parents on hygienic practices that prevent further spread of the illness. The following can be recommended: hand washing with soap, regular washing of the child's clothes. Education on hygienic practices
Educate the patient and parents on hygienic practices that prevent further spread of the illness. The following can be recommended: hand washing with soap, regular washing of the child's clothes.
Avoid school for one week after therapy Minimizes spread to other close contacts and prevent infection with other bacterial strains. Avoid school for one week after therapy
Minimizes spread to other close contacts and prevent infection with other bacterial strains.
Examine and treat close contacts Prevents reinfection with the same pathogen is common if the close contacts are also colonized with the pathogen. Examine and treat close contacts
Prevents reinfection with the same pathogen is common if the close contacts are also colonized with the pathogen.

Management - Specific

Fact Explanation
Mupirocin Topical application three times daily for 7–10 days. Is bactericidal and effective against MRSA.,, Mupirocin
Topical application three times daily for 7–10 days. Is bactericidal and effective against MRSA.,,
Erythromycin Preferred oral medication for a systemically ill patient who has developed cellulitis, abscesses, suppurative lymphadenitis or if there is a risk of topical medication being licked off by the child., Erythromycin
Preferred oral medication for a systemically ill patient who has developed cellulitis, abscesses, suppurative lymphadenitis or if there is a risk of topical medication being licked off by the child.,
Fusidic acid Topical application 3–4 times a day, for 7 days. Effective against staphylococcal infections, an alternative to Mupirocin. Fusidic acid
Topical application 3–4 times a day, for 7 days. Effective against staphylococcal infections, an alternative to Mupirocin.
Flucloxacillin An oral drug, that is bactericidal, effective against
beta lactamase producing staphylococci and in erythromycin resistance. ,
Flucloxacillin
An oral drug, that is bactericidal, effective against
beta lactamase producing staphylococci and in erythromycin resistance. ,
Amoxicillin clavulanate An oral drug with bactericidal action, useful in beta lactamase producing staphylococci and erythromycin resistance., Amoxicillin clavulanate
An oral drug with bactericidal action, useful in beta lactamase producing staphylococci and erythromycin resistance.,
Clarithromycin/ Azithromycin Useful if erythromycin is poorly tolerated. , Clarithromycin/ Azithromycin
Useful if erythromycin is poorly tolerated. ,
Vancomycin Effective in impetigo caused by MRSA. , Vancomycin
Effective in impetigo caused by MRSA. ,

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