Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Acute Pyelonephritis (APN)"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Acute pyelonephritis (APN) refers to infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma. It is the most serious form of urinary tract infection, with a high risk for sepsis and permanent kidney damage.\r\n\r\nAffected children may experience high fever, abdominal or flank pain, frequency, dysuria, irritability, lethargy, nausea, or vomiting. Costovertebral angle tenderness may be present. \r\n\r\nA presumptive diagnosis of APN can be made based on a supportive clinical presentation, and a urinalysis showing pyuria or or bacteriuria. In such cases, empirical antibiotic treatment should be started until urine and blood culture results are obtained.\n"},{"insert":"APN: Indications for admission"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Children with acute pyelonephritis (APN) should be admitted to hospital if:\r\n\r\n- They are severely ill\r\n- They are unable to tolerate oral therapy (due to vomiting)\r\n- There is suspicion of poor compliance with therapy\n"}]}

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