Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Nephrotic Syndrome"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Nephrotic syndrome is a condition in which massive proteinuria leads to hypoalbuminemia and edema. The incidence is 1 to 7 individuals per 100,000 children under 16 years of age.\n\nThe foremost causes of \u0027idiopathic\u0027 nephrotic syndrome (INS) in childhood are minimal change disease (MCD) and, less commonly, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).\n\nThe underlying pathophysiology of INS appears to be a circulating immune-mediated \u0027permeability factor\u0027 of T-cell origin, which alters the permeability of the glomerular podocytes to allow the passage of albumin and other negatively charged proteins.\n\nOther causes of nephrotic syndrome in childhood include gene mutations, membranous nephropathy and glomerulonephritis (e.g. due to systemic lupus e"}]}

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