Gastrointestinal System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Milk reflux in the newborn"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is defined as the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus; it is extremely common in the newborn, occurring in almost two-thirds of healthy children.\r\n \r\nGER is associated with normal physiologic mechanisms, i.e. transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter.\r\n \r\nHowever, several factors may increase the likelihood and severity of GER, including extensive milk intake, supine posture, immature esophageal motility, and poor esophageal clearance; the latter two attributes are associated with prematurity.\n"},{"insert":"Management of gastroesophageal reflux"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"In infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), conservative techniques are considered the first-line therapy, even though evidence in this respect is scanty.\r\n\r\nIn particular, positioning is considered a safe first step in both acidic and non-acidic GER; optimal results are achieved in the prone and left lateral positions, while conversely, the supine and right lateral positions seem to worsen symptoms.\r\n\r\nThat said, outpatient newborns should not be placed in the prone position, as this is linked to a higher incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).\r\n\r\nOther approaches include dietary changes, with a prolonged feeding duration being more effective in non-acid GER, and frequent, small feeds being preferable in acidic GER.\r\n\r\nIn infa"}]}

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