Internal

Renal & Urinary System


{"ops":[{"insert":"Raynaud phenomenon"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Raynaud phenomenon (RP) presents as well-demarcated color changes of the skin of the fingers and toes, following exposure to cold. This is due to abnormal vasoconstriction of the digital arteries and cutaneous arterioles.\n\nRP can be primary or secondary. Common secondary causes include systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, Sj\u00f6gren\u0027s syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and undifferentiated connective-tissue disease.\n\nAvoidance of cold remains the most effective therapy. Pharmacological treatment is initiated when the former approaches are ineffective. Current evidence supports the use of either calcium channel blockers or synthetic prostacyclin analogs (e.g.iloprost).\n\nOther alternatives include phosphodi"}]}

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