Renal & Urinary System

{"ops":[{"insert":"Diabetic nephropathy"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a metabolic disorder with high morbidity and mortality; it is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide.\r\n\r\nThe condition affects 20% to 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; African-Americans, Asians, and Native Americans are more likely to be affected compared to Caucasians.\r\n \r\nThe prevalence increases with the length of time since diagnosis.\n"},{"insert":"Anemia in chronic kidney disease"},{"insert":"\n","attributes":{"header":1}},{"insert":"Anemia is diagnosed in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) when hemoglobin levels fall below 13.0g\/dL in males and 12.0g\/dl in females.\r\n \r\nA complete blood count, reticulocyte count, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and vitamin B12 and folate levels should be measured at the time of diagnosis.\r\n \r\nPatients with CKD who are not anemic should have hemoglobin measured as clinically indicated; in CKD stage 3 this should be at least annually, while in stages 4 and 5, at least twice per year. \r\n \r\nFurthermore, all patients who require renal replacement therapy should have hemoglobin levels measured at least every three months, in addition to when clinically indicated.\n"}]}

Want to continue playing?

Open your Clinical Odyssey account today.

Enjoy unlimited access to 600+ simulations.
Safely improve your skills, anytime and anywhere.
Get answers to your follow-up questions from practicing physicians.