Nephrotic Syndrome



This little girl has a potentially chronic disease. Can you help improve her quality of life?

  1. Diet and Lifestyle Modifications in Nephrotic Syndrome
  2. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  3. Imaging Studies to Identify Deep Vein Thrombosis
  4. Indications for Renal Biopsy
  5. Lipid Abnormalities in Nephrotic Syndrome
  6. Nephrotic Syndrome
  7. Reducing the risk factors for infection in nephrotic syndrome.
  8. Remission, and other concepts associated with nephrotic syndrome
  9. Secondary Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome
  10. Steroid Therapy for Nephrotic Syndrome
  11. Steroid-resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (SRNS)
  12. Thrombotic Complications of NS
  13. Treatment of thromboembolic complications
  14. Urinary Testing for Nephrotic Syndrome
  1. CALLAHAN MJ. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography of the lower extremities in infants and children. Pediatr Radiol [online] 2013 Mar:S8-22 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1007/s00247-012-2589-6 20. CHAM MD, YANKELEVITZ DF, SHAHAM D, SHAH AA, SHERMAN L, LEWIS A, RADEMAKER J, PEARSON G, CHOI J, WOLFF W, PRABHU PM, GALANSKI M, CLARK RA, SOSTMAN HD, HENSCHKE CI. Deep venous thrombosis: detection by using indirect CT venography. The Pulmonary Angiography-Indirect CT Venography Cooperative Group. Radiology [online] 2000 Sep, 216(3):744-51 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1148/radiology.216.3.r00se44744
  2. EDDY AA, SYMONS JM. Nephrotic syndrome in childhood. Lancet [online] 2003 Aug 23, 362(9384):629-39 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14184-0 2. SOARES SF, DONATTI TL, SOUTO FJ. Serological markers of viral, syphilitic and toxoplasmic infection in children and teenagers with nephrotic syndrome: case series from Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo [online] 2014 Nov-Dec, 56(6):499-504 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: 3. MENDOZA SA, TUNE BM. Treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 1992 Oct, 3(4):889-94 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: 4. METZ DK, KAUSMAN JY. Childhood nephrotic syndrome in the 21st century: What's new? J Paediatr Child Health [online] 2014 Sep 30 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1111/jpc.12734 5. SINGHAL R, BRIMBLE KS. Thromboembolic complications in the nephrotic syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical management. Thromb Res [online] 2006, 118(3):397-407 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2005.03.030 6. LLACH F. Hypercoagulability, renal vein thrombosis, and other thrombotic complications of nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int [online] 1985 Sep, 28(3):429-39 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: 7. LOMBEL RM, HODSON EM, GIPSON DS, KIDNEY DISEASE: IMPROVING GLOBAL OUTCOMES. Treatment of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in children: new guidelines from KDIGO. Pediatr Nephrol [online] 2013 Mar, 28(3):409-14 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2304-8 8. GIPSON DS, CHIN H, PRESLER TP, JENNETTE C, FERRIS ME, MASSENGILL S, GIBSON K, THOMAS DB. Differential risk of remission and ESRD in childhood FSGS. Pediatr Nephrol [online] 2006 Mar, 21(3):344-9 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1007/s00467-005-2097-0 9. FOGO AB. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Rev Nephrol [online] 2015 Feb, 11(2):76-87 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1038/nrneph.2014.216 10. SETHNA CB, GIPSON DS. Treatment of FSGS in Children. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis [online] 2014 Mar, 21(2):194-9 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1053/j.ackd.2014.01.010 11. TREVISAN R, DODESINI AR, LEPORE G. Lipids and renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 2006 Apr, 17(4 Suppl 2):S145-7 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1681/ASN.2005121320 12. BECK L, BOMBACK AS, CHOI MJ, HOLZMAN LB, LANGFORD C, MARIANI LH, SOMERS MJ, TRACHTMAN H, WALDMAN M. KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Am J Kidney Dis [online] 2013 Sep, 62(3):403-41 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.06.002 13. ANDOLINO TP, REID-ADAM J. Nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Rev [online] 2015 Mar, 36(3):117-25; quiz 126, 129 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1542/pir.36-3-117 14. Primary nephrotic syndrome in children: clinical significance of histopathologic variants of minimal change and of diffuse mesangial hypercellularity. A Report of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children. Kidney Int [online] 1981 Dec, 20(6):765-71 [viewed 02 October 2015] Available from: 15. ZAFFANELLO M, FRANCHINI M. Thromboembolism in childhood nephrotic syndrome: a rare but serious complication. Hematology [online] 2007 Feb, 12(1):69-73 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1080/10245330600940048 16. GLASSOCK RJ. Prophylactic anticoagulation in nephrotic syndrome: a clinical conundrum. J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 2007 Aug, 18(8):2221-5 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.1681/ASN.2006111300 17. AVASTHI PS, GREENE ER, SCHOLLER C, FOWLER CR. Noninvasive diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis by ultrasonic echo-Doppler flowmetry. Kidney Int [online] 1983 Jun, 23(6):882-7 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: 18. KERLIN BA, AYOOB R, SMOYER WE. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of nephrotic syndrome-associated thromboembolic disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 2012 Mar, 7(3):513-20 [viewed 03 October 2015] Available from: doi:10.2215/CJN.10131011