An important message regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic. Click here to read more.

Substance Abuse



Are common problems necessarily easier to manage?

  1. Acute heroin overdose
  2. Blood cultures in infectious endocarditis
  3. Blood-borne infections in IV drug abusers
  4. IV drug abuse and infectious endocarditis
  5. Intial management of an acute heroin overdose
  6. Long-term management of drug addiction
  7. Management of HIV
  8. Opioid withdrawal
  9. Side effects of Methadone
  1. ANDERSON IB, KEARNEY TE. Use of methadone West J Med [online] 2000 Jan, 172(1):43-46 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  2. DOUAIHY AB, KELLY TM, SULLIVAN C. Medications for Substance Use Disorders Soc Work Public Health [online] 2013, 28(0):264-278 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  3. FAREED A, STOUT S, CASARELLA J, VAYALAPALLI S, COX J, DREXLER K. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment Subst Abuse [online] 2011 Apr 18:17-25 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  4. GOULD FK, DENNING DW, ELLIOTT TS, FOWERAKER J, PERRY JD, PRENDERGAST BD, SANDOE JA, SPRY MJ, WATKIN RW, WORKING PARTY OF THE BRITISH SOCIETY FOR ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother [online] 2012 Feb, 67(2):269-89 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  5. JAYAKRISHNAN B, AL ASMI A, AL QASSABI A, NANDHAGOPAL R, MOHAMMED I. Acute Drug Overdose: Clinical Profile, Etiologic Spectrum and Determinants of Duration of Intensive Medical Treatment Oman Med J [online] 2012 Nov, 27(6):501-504 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  6. KHALSA JH, ELKASHEF A. Interventions for HIV and hepatitis C virus infections in recreational drug users. Clin Infect Dis [online] 2010 Jun 1, 50(11):1505-11 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  7. KLEBER HD. Pharmacologic treatments for opioid dependence: detoxification and maintenance options Dialogues Clin Neurosci [online] 2007 Dec, 9(4):455-470 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  8. KREEK MJ, BORG L, DUCAT E, RAY B. Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Addiction: Methadone J Addict Dis [online] 2010 Apr, 29(2):200-216 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  9. MCHUGH RK, HEARON BA, OTTO MW. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders Psychiatr Clin North Am [online] 2010 Sep, 33(3):511-525 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  10. ORTIZ C, LóPEZ J, GARCíA H, SEVILLA T, REVILLA A, VILACOSTA I, SARRIá C, OLMOS C, FERRERA C, GARCíA PE, SáEZ C, GóMEZ I, SAN ROMáN JA. Clinical Classification and Prognosis of Isolated Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis Medicine (Baltimore) [online] 2014 Dec 12, 93(27):e137 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  11. PANDURANGA P, AL-MUKHAINI M, SULAIMAN K, AL-ABRI S. Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis in an Intravenous Drug Abuser Masquerading as Pulmonary Tuberculosis Heart Views [online] 2010 Oct-Dec, 11(3):121-124 [viewed 28 July 2016] Available from:
  12. PARKAR SR, SEETHALAKSHMI R, ADARKAR S, KHARAWALA S. Is this 'complicated' opioid withdrawal? Indian J Psychiatry [online] 2006 Apr-Jun, 48(2):121-122 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  13. RUDD RA, ALESHIRE N, ZIBBELL JE, GLADDEN RM. Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths--United States, 2000-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep [online] 2016 Jan 1, 64(50-51):1378-82 [viewed 25 July 2016] Available from:
  14. SPORER KARL A.. Acute Heroin Overdose. Ann Intern Med [online] 1999 April [viewed 25 July 2016] Available from: doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-7-199904060-00019
  15. STARAKIS IOANNIS, MAZOKOPAKIS ELIAS. Array. IDDT [online] 2010 February, 10(1):22-26 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from: doi:10.2174/187152610790410891
  16. STAWICKI SP, FIRSTENBERG MS, LYAKER MR, RUSSELL SB, EVANS DC, BERGESE SD, PAPADIMOS TJ. Septic embolism in the intensive care unit Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci [online] 2013 Jan-Mar, 3(1):58-63 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  17. Screening for HIV: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician [online] 2014 Apr 15, 89(8):Online [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from:
  18. WILKINS T, AKHTAR M, GITITU E, JALLURI C, RAMIREZ J. Diagnosis and Management of Hepatitis C. Am Fam Physician [online] 2015 Jun 15, 91(12):835-42 [viewed 26 July 2016] Available from: