Multiple Sclerosis

Blurred

Overview

A young woman with blurred vision. Serious or not?


  1. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica
  2. Interferon beta-1a
  3. Lhermitte's sign
  4. Natalizumab
  5. Optic neuritis
  6. The Expanded Disability Status Score
  1. ABRAMS JD. TRANSILLUMINATION OF THE IRIS DURING ROUTINE SLIT-LAMP EXAMINATION. The British Journal of Ophthalmology [online] 1964;48(1):42-44 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC505902/?page=1
  2. COBO-CALVO Á, BAU L, MATAS E, ROMERO-PINEL L, MAñé MARTíNEZ MA, MAJóS C, MARTíNEZ YéLAMOS S. Effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol [online] 2015, 73(3-4):220-9 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25792347
  3. DOMíNGUEZ-MOZO MI, GARCíA-MONTOJO M, ARIAS-LEAL A, GARCíA-MARTíNEZ Á, SANTIAGO JL, CASANOVA I, GALáN V, ARROYO R, FERNáNDEZ-ARQUERO M, ALVAREZ-LAFUENTE R. Monitoring the John Cunningham virus throughout natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol [online] 2016 Jan, 23(1):182-9 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498276
  4. HILLS A, AL-HAKIM M. Lhermitte Sign as a Presenting Symptom of Thoracic Spinal Pathology: A Case Study. Case Rep Neurol Med [online] 2015:707362 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26339515
  5. JANKOVIC SM. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. J Inflamm Res [online] 2010; 3: 25-31 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218739/
  6. KATZ SAND I. Classification, diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol [online] 2015 Jun, 28(3):193-205 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25887774
  7. KORB P, & SIMPSON J. (2016). Approach to Acute Visual Changes, Abnormal Eye Movements, and Double Vision. The Hospital Neurology Book (1st ed.) (pp. 377-402). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  8. LEVENSON JH, KOZARSKY A. VISUAL ACUITY. In: WALKER HK, HALL WD, HURST JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 115 [online] [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK219/
  9. MATTHEWS L, KOLIND S, BRAZIER A, LEITE MI, BROOKS J, TRABOULSEE A, JENKINSON M, JOHANSEN-BERG H, PALACE J. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis. PLoS One [online] 2015 Sep 18, 10(9):e0137715 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26381510
  10. MEYER-MOOCK S, FENG YS, MAEURER M, DIPPEL FW, KOHLMANN T. Systematic literature review and validity evaluation of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) in patients with multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurol [online] 2014 Mar 25:58 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24666846
  11. OTA M, SATO N, OKAMOTO T, NODA T, ARAKI M, YAMAMURA T, KUNUGI H. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and multiple sclerosis: Differentiation by a multimodal approach. Mult Scler Relat Disord [online] 2015 Nov, 4(6):515-20 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590657
  12. SAGUIL A, KANE S, FARNELL E. Multiple sclerosis: a primary care perspective. Am Fam Physician [online] 2014 Nov 1, 90(9):644-52 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368924
  13. SPECTOR RH. Visual Fields. In: WALKER HK, HALL WD, HURST JW, editors. Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 116 [online] [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK220/
  14. TOOSY AT, MASON DF, MILLER DH. Optic neuritis. Lancet Neurol [online] 2014 Jan, 13(1):83-99 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24331795
  15. WILHELM H, SCHABET M. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Optic Neuritis. Dtsch Arztebl Int [online] 2015 Sep 11, 112(37):616-25; quiz 626 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396053
  16. WILLIAMS MT, TAPOS DO, JUHáSZ C. Use of the 2010 McDonald criteria can facilitate early diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis in a predominantly black cohort. Pediatr Neurol [online] 2014 Dec, 51(6):826-30 [viewed 16 December 2016] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25283753