Lemierre's Syndrome

Sore Throat

Overview

Diseases considered antiquated may at times come back with a vengeance. When that happens, will you be prepared?


  1. Antibiotic therapy in Lemierre's Syndrome
  2. Antibiotic therapy in patients with acute pharyngitis
  3. Anticoagulation Therapy
  4. Complications of Lemierre's Syndrome
  5. Fusobacterium Necrophorum
  6. Lemierre's Syndrome
  7. Radiological features of Lemierre's syndrome
  8. Signs and symptoms of Tension Pneumothorax
  9. The mononucleosis spot test
  10. The rapid antigen detection test for Group A Streptococci
  11. Treatment of Tension Pneumothorax
  1. AGGARWAL SK, NATH A, SINGH R, KESHRI A. Lemierre's Syndrome presenting with neurological and pulmonary symptoms: Case report and review of the literature Ann Indian Acad Neurol [online] 2013, 16(2):259-263 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.4103/0972-2327.1
  2. AJULO P, QAYYUM A, BREWIS C, INNES A. Lemierre's syndrome: the link between a simple sore throat, sore neck and pleuritic chest pain. Ann R Coll Surg Engl [online] 2005 Jul, 87(4):303-305 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1308/1478708051757
  3. BASSON V, SHARP AA. Monospot: a differential slide test for infectious mononucleosis J Clin Pathol [online] 1969 May, 22(3):324-325 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC474075
  4. BOLDT BM, NGUYEN D, FAGA M, CARAS W. Lemierre's Syndrome: from pharyngitis to fulminant sepsis BMJ Case Rep [online] :bcr0620103121 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2010.3121
  5. CARTER PK, SCHOEN I, MIYAHIRA T. Quantitation of a slide test (Monotest) for infectious mononucleosis J Clin Pathol [online] 1970 Nov, 23(8):700-702 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC476871
  6. CHIRINOS JA, LICHTSTEIN DM, GARCIA J, TAMARIZ LJ. The evolution of Lemierre's Syndrome: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) [online] 2002 Nov, 81(6):458-65 [viewed 22 January 2015] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12441902
  7. CHOBY BA. Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician [online] 2009 Mar 1, 79(5):383-90 [viewed 09 January 2015] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275067
  8. DIRKS J, BOWIE D. Sore throat progressing to embolic sepsis: A case of Lemierre's syndrome Can Respir J [online] 2010, 17(1):e20-e22 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866203
  9. EILBERT W, SINGLA N. Lemierre's syndrome. Int J Emerg Med [online] 2013 Oct 23, 6(1):40 [viewed 22 January 2015] Available from: doi:10.1186/1865-1380-6-40
  10. ELLIS SIMONSEN SM, VAN ORMAN ER, HATCH BE, JONES SS, GREN LH, HEGMANN KT, LYON JL. Cellulitis incidence in a defined population Epidemiol Infect [online] 2006 Apr, 134(2):293-299 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1017/S095026880500484X
  11. HAGELSKJAER KRISTENSEN L, PRAG J. Human necrobacillosis, with emphasis on Lemierre's syndrome. Clin Infect Dis [online] 2000 Aug, 31(2):524-32 [viewed 22 January 2015] Available from: doi:10.1086/313970
  12. HOLM K, FRICK IM, BJöRCK L, RASMUSSEN M. Activation of the Contact System at the Surface of Fusobacterium necrophorum Represents a Possible Virulence Mechanism in Lemièrre's Syndrome Infect Immun [online] 2011 Aug, 79(8):3284-3290 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1128/IAI.05264-11
  13. KANEDA H, NAKANO T, TANIGUCHI Y, SAITO T, KONOBU T, SAITO Y. Three-step management of pneumothorax: time for a re-think on initial management Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg [online] 2013 Feb, 16(2):186-192 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs445
  14. KUSHAWAHA A, POPALZAI M, EL-CHARABATY E, MOBARAKAI N. Lemierre's syndrome, reemergence of a forgotten disease: a case report Cases J [online] :6397 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-6397
  15. LAKSHMINARAYANA PH, WOODSKE ME. A Unique Case of Lemierre's Syndrome Associated with Thrombophilia in an Adult and the Role of Anticoagulation Case Rep Med [online] 2010:982494 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1155/2010/982494
  16. LEWIS DL, BUTTS CJ, MORENO-WALTON L. Facing the Danger Zone: The Use of Ultrasound to Distinguish Cellulitis from Abscess in Facial Infections Case Rep Emerg Med [online] 2014:935283 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1155/2014/935283
  17. PHUA CK, CHADACHAN VM, ACHARYA R. Lemierre's Syndrome—Should We Anticoagulate? A Case Report and Review of the Literature Int J Angiol [online] 2013 Jun, 22(2):137-142 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1055/s-0033-1336828
  18. RIORDAN T. Human Infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Necrobacillosis), with a Focus on Lemierre's Syndrome Clin Microbiol Rev [online] 2007 Oct, 20(4):622-659 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1128/CMR.00011-07
  19. ROBERTS DJ, LEIGH-SMITH S, FARIS PD, BALL CG, ROBERTSON HL, BLACKMORE C, DIXON E, KIRKPATRICK AW, KORTBEEK JB, STELFOX HT. Clinical manifestations of tension pneumothorax: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis Syst Rev [online] :3 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-3
  20. SCREATON NJ, RAVENEL JG, LEHNER PJ, HEITZMAN ER, FLOWER CD. Lemierre's Syndrome: forgotten but not extinct--report of four cases. Radiology [online] 1999 Nov, 213(2):369-74 [viewed 22 January 2015] Available from: doi:10.1148/radiology.213.2.r99nv09369
  21. SHULMAN ST, BISNO AL, CLEGG HW, GERBER MA, KAPLAN EL, LEE G, MARTIN JM, VAN BENEDEN C, INFECTIOUS DISEASES SOCIETY OF AMERICA. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis [online] 2012 Nov 15, 55(10):e86-102 [viewed 09 January 2015] Available from: doi:10.1093/cid/cis629
  22. YOON JS, CHOI SY, SUH JH, JEONG JY, LEE BY, PARK YG, KIM CK, PARK CB. Tension pneumothorax, is it a really life-threatening condition? J Cardiothorac Surg [online] :197 [viewed 25 December 2014] Available from: doi:10.1186/1749-8090-8-197