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Drug Interactions



One patient, many drugs. An infinity of possible interactions. Can you tackle them all?

  1. Complications as a result of untreated serotonin syndrome
  2. Continuous cardiac monitoring in hyperkalemia
  3. Drug-induced hyperkalemia
  4. Lone atrial fibrillation
  5. Management of acute upper GI bleeding due to gastric ulcers
  6. Serotonin toxicity - diagnostic criteria
  7. The Rockall Score and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding
  8. Topical NSAIDs and Warfarin
  9. Treatment of hyperkalemia
  10. Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in hyperkalemia
  1. ABLES AZ, NAGUBILLI R. Prevention, recognition, and management of serotonin syndrome. Am Fam Physician [online] 2010 May 1, 81(9):1139-42 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from:
  2. AGRAWAL P, CHOPRA D, PATRA SK, MADAAN H. Periodic paralysis: An unusual presentation of drug-induced hyperkalemia J Pharmacol Pharmacother [online] 2014 Jan-Mar, 5(1):63-66 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  3. AMENT PW, BERTOLINO JG, LISZEWSKI JL. Clinically significant drug interactions. Am Fam Physician [online] 2000 Mar 15, 61(6):1745-54 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  4. AYOUB I, OH MS, GUPTA R, MCFARLANE M, BABINSKA A, SALIFU MO. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats PLoS One [online] 2015 Sep 28, 10(9):e0137636 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  5. CHOI KH, KIM AJ, SON IJ, KIM KH, KIM KB, AHN H, LEE EB. Risk Factors of Drug Interaction between Warfarin and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Practical Setting J Korean Med Sci [online] 2010 Feb 17, 25(3):337-341 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  6. COOPER BE, SEJNOWSKI CA. Serotonin syndrome: recognition and treatment. AACN Adv Crit Care [online] 2013 Jan-Mar, 24(1):15-20; quiz 21-2 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  7. Correction. Circulation [online] 2015 Jun 16, 131(24):e535 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  8. FROST L. Lone atrial fibrillation: good, bad, or ugly? Circulation [online] 2007 Jun 19, 115(24):3040-1 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  9. GELSOMINO S, LA MEIR M, LUCa F, LORUSSO R, CRUDELI E, VASQUEZ L, GENSINI GF, MAESSEN J. Treatment of lone atrial fibrillation: a look at the past, a view of the present and a glance at the future. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg [online] 2012 Jun, 41(6):1284-94 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  10. HOLLANDER-RODRIGUEZ JC, CALVERT JF JR. Hyperkalemia. Am Fam Physician [online] 2006 Jan 15, 73(2):283-90 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  11. KIM JS, PARK SM, KIM BW. Endoscopic Management of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding Clin Endosc [online] 2015 Mar 27, 48(2):106-111 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  12. LAINE L, JENSEN DM. Management of patients with ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol [online] 2012 Mar, 107(3):345-60; quiz 361 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  13. LEHNHARDT A, KEMPER MJ. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia Pediatr Nephrol [online] 2010 Dec 22, 26(3):377-384 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  14. MAKRIS U, KOHLER M, FRAENKEL L. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature J Rheumatol [online] 2010 Apr 1, 37(6):1236-1243 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from:
  15. NOUREDDINE LAMA, DIXON BRADLEY S. Complications and management of hyperkalemia: implications for the use of the novel cation exchangers zirconium cyclosilicate and patiromer. Clinical Investigation [online] 2015 December, 5(10):805-823 [viewed 20 July 2016] Available from: doi:10.4155/cli.15.48
  16. RASTOGI R, SWARM RA, PATEL TA. Case scenario: opioid association with serotonin syndrome: implications to the practitioners. Anesthesiology [online] 2011 Dec, 115(6):1291-8 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  17. STANLEY AJ. Update on risk scoring systems for patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage World J Gastroenterol [online] 2012 Jun 14, 18(22):2739-2744 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  18. VARRIALE P, NGAI L. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate use revisited. Am J Med [online] 2014 Aug, 127(8):e37 [viewed 17 July 2016] Available from:
  19. VOLPI-ABADIE J, KAYE AM, KAYE AD. Serotonin Syndrome Ochsner J [online] 2013 Winter, 13(4):533-540 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  20. WANG CY, QIN J, WANG J, SUN CY, CAO T, ZHU DD. Rockall score in predicting outcomes of elderly patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding World J Gastroenterol [online] 2013 Jun 14, 19(22):3466-3472 [viewed 13 July 2016] Available from:
  21. WATSON M, ABBOTT KC, YUAN CM. Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol [online] 2010 Oct, 5(10):1723-6 [viewed 21 July 2016] Available from: